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Linux中各个目录的含义

    Linux中各个目录的含义

    
    /
    This is the root directory. The mothership. The home field. The one and only top directory for your whole computer. Everything, and I mean EVERYTHING starts here. When you type ‘/home’ what you’re really saying is “start at / and then go to the home directory.”
    这个是根目录。每个主机都只有一个根目录,是系统文件开始的地方
    
    /root
    This is where the root user lives. The root user is the god of your system. Root can do anything, up to and including removing your entire filesystem. So be careful using root
    这个是root用户的目录,root用户是系统中权限最高的用户,可以删除系统文件,因此需要慎用。
    
    /bin
    Here’s where your standard linux utilities(read programs) live — things like “ls” and “vi” and “more”. Generally this directory is included in your path. What this means is that if you type ‘ls’, /bin is one of the places your shell will look to see if ‘ls’ means anything.
    这个目录存放了Linux中缺省的工具,如ls,vi,more等命令。这个目录一般都默认在path的环境变量里面。
    
    /etc
    Here’s where the administrative and system configuration stuff lives. For instance, if you have samba installed, and you want to modify the samba configuration files, you’d find them in /etc/samba.
    这个目录主要存放了系统配置方面的文件
    
    /dev
    Here’s where files that control peripherals live. Talking to a printer? Your computer is doing it from here. Same goes for disk drives, usb devices, and other such stuff.
    这个目录主要存放与设备有关的文件。Linux中将设备文件,因此诸如打印机,磁盘驱动,USB驱动等等,都放在这个目录下
    
    /home
    Here’s where your data is stored. Config files specific to users, your Desktop folder(whick makes your desktop what it is), and any data related to your user. Each user will have their own /home/username folder, with the exception of the root user.
    主要是存放个人数据。除了root用户,其他用户的设置文件,桌面文件以及个人数据都是放在各自的用户目录下面。如test用户,其个人数据以及桌面等文件都是放在/home/test/目录下面
    
    /tmp
    This is the Temporary folder. Think of it as a scratch directory for your Linux system. Files that won’t be needed by programs once their used once or twice are put here. Many Linux systems are set to automatically wipe the /tmp folder at certain intervals, so don’t put things you want to keep here
    这个是临时目录,一般不要把重要文件放在这个目录里面
    
    /usr
    Here’s where you’ll find extra utilities that don’t fit under /bin or /etc. Things like games, printer utilities, and whatnot. /usr is divided into sections like /usr/bin for programs, /usr/share for shared data like sound files or icons, /usr/lib for libraries whick cannot be directly run but are essential for running other programs.Your package manager takes care of the things in /usr for you
    这个目录存放那些不适合放在/bin或是/etc目录下的额外的工具,如游戏,office等等。这个目录下面还有很多子目录,如/usr/bin/存放程序,/usr/share存放共享数据,/usr/lib/存放那些不能直接运行,但是某些程序需要依赖的库文件
    
    /opt
    Here’s where optional stuff is put. Trying out the latest Firefox beta? Install it to /opt where you can delete it without affecting other settings. Programs in here usually live inside a single folder whick contains all of their data, libraries, etc.
    这里主要存放那些可选的程序。你想尝试最新的firefox测试版吗?那就装到/opt目录下吧,这样,当你尝试完,想删掉firefox的时 候,你就可以直接删除它,而不影响系统其他任何设置。安装到/opt目录下的程序,它所有的数据、库文件等等都是放在同个目录下面。举个例子:刚才装的测 试版firefox,就可以装到/opt/firefox_beta目录下,/opt/firefox_beta目录下面就包含了运行firefox所需 要的所有文件、库、数据等等。要删除firefox的时候,你只需删除/opt/firefox_beta目录即可,非常简单。
    
    /usr/local
    This is where most manually installed(ie. outside of your package manager) software goes. It has the same structure as /usr. It is a good idea to leave /usr to your package manager and put any custom scripts and things into /usr/local, since nothing important normally lives in /usr/local.
    这里主要存放那些手动安装的软件,即不是通过“新立得”或apt-get安装的软件。它和/usr目录具有相类似的目录结构。让软件包管理器来管理/usr目录,而把自定义的脚本(scripts)放到/usr/local目录下面,我想这应该是个不错的主意
    
    /media
    Some distros use this folder to mount things like usb disks, cd or dvd drives and other filesystems.
    有些linux的发行版使用这个目录来挂载那些usb接口的移动硬盘(包括U盘)、CD/DVD驱动器等等。

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