新托福(iBT)写作满分详解及作文模板

  新托福(internet based TOEFL 简称iBT TOEFL) 自2005年9月在北美开考以来,很多考生谈此色变。有的考生把新托福戏称为 “我变态”(iBT 亦是我变态的谐音)。不少同学纷纷转考其他类型的考试,一试不爽,又转回iBT, 这么几个回合下来时间就被浪费掉了。
    纵观新托福考试的4大块,中国考生要在短期内(2 - 4个月)迅速取得新托福高分(100分以上), 考生必须有相当的应考策略。笔者对考生的新托福成绩作了大量统计和分析后发现考生考分相对高的2个部分是听力和写作。考分相对低的是阅读和口语。 今天,作者着重和大家聊聊如何在极短的时间内(3天的时间)迅速取得作文27分以上,并给出作者参加新托福考试取得满分的作文部分模块,供各位考生参考。作文考试作为新托福的第4部分, 共有2篇作文。

Part one  写作模板
I、Integrated writing ( 综合写作)

  第一篇作文 叫做Integrated writing ( 结合写作), 给考生3分钟读一篇文章(大概200字左右),然后听一段关于对此文章的评论,结束后让考生写出150-225字的作文(只能打字),典型的问法是:Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on point made in the reading. 听力结束后,阅读部分会再次出现并保留在电脑屏幕的左半部分,考生便可以开始写作。此文的评分标准有2条: 1. 要点分 2. 语言分

要写好此篇作文关键有以下几点:
  1.”考生必须从根本上掌握英语八股文的结构。阅读时,考生必须按照八股文结构,记下这些points和support points 的details.
  2.”听力时,考生要记下说话者是如何反对这些Points的。注意的是说话者的反对顺序不一定按照阅读文章的演进顺序进行。
  3.”如果points 没有漏掉,接下来的关键就是考生如何表达说话者和阅读内容的关系了。
以下关于smart cars写作使用的模块,提供给大家参改。
  The lecture is mainly discussing ______, ________ and ___________
  by _________, challenging what are stated in the reading passage that _________, _________ and _______.
  First of all, the speaker thinks that ___________. In contrast, the reading passage believes that _____________. So, the lecture totally disagree with the view made in the reading.
  Second, the speaker discusses ___________, Contradicting what is stated in the reading that _____________________.
  Finally, the speakers raises the issue that ___________. This point disagrees that ________________ demonstrated in the reading.
  So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has totally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.
以下的一些模板内容仅供参考:
综合写作部分分项模板:
1. Showing Challenge
In the lecture, the professor made several points about______________. The professor argues that__________________.
However, the reading contends that________________.
The professor’s lecture casts doubts on the reading by using a number of points that are contrary to___________________________.
The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that_________________.
According to the professor,________________________________.
_______________ differs from the reading in that the reading states _______________________________.
The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading because_______________________.
Another point that the professor uses to casts doubt on the reading is ___________________________________.
The professor claims that______________________________________.
However, the reading states _____________________________________.
This point is contradicted by_____________________________________.
Finally, the professor stated that, on the contrary of the reading, _____________________________________.
In other words,______________________________________.
This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________.
In conclusion, the points made in the lecture contradict the reading.
_________________and_______________ demonstrate that ___________is in doubt.
2. Showing support
In the lecture, the professor made several points about_______________.
The professor argues that______________________________.
The points made by the professor agree with________________.
In fact, the examples used by the professor support_________________.
The first point that the professor uses to support the reading is that_______________________.
According to the professor,_____________________________.
______________________supports the reading, which holds that_______________________.
The point made by the professor supports the reading because_____________________.
Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that_______________.
The professor claims that_________________________________.
This point agrees with the reading, which contends that______________.
__________________ shows the truth of the reading because___________.
Finally, the professor stated that, in support of the reading, ______________________________.
Specifically,__________________________________________.
This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________.
In conclusion, the points made in the lecture support the reading.
________________ and ________________________demonstrate that ________________________is invalid.

II. Independent writing
  此篇文章和以前的笔试及机考没有什么大的区别,给30分钟写一篇300字的文章(只能打字)。此篇文章的评分标准有4个:

  1.”Address the writing topic effectively (有效地阐明主题)
  2.”Well organized and well-developed (条理清楚,发展充分)
  3.”Use specific details and examples to support your view (论据具体明确)
  4.”Word choices and sentence variety (遣词造句能力)
  典型的问法是:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
  考生要取得这篇作文的高分或满分,以上4条均重要。此篇文章写几段为好?我建议大家最多五段,至少写4段。 此作文模板我曾在网上公布过,在此不再重述。
  以上2篇作为评分有个共性,是按照percentile进行,即使是满分作文,也允许你有错误,到底有多少错,很难说,关键是你和其他考生相比你的作文好坏。
  作文应该是新托福最容易准备的部分,写作文不能钻牛角尖,不一定写很多篇(我建议每个考生以上两种文章各写个3-5 篇), 考生要学会用简单的英文单词来阐明观点。
  越来越多的新托福考生来参加我们新托福考试培训,其主要原因是老师有正确的教学方法和老师本身的教学能力。
  让我们站在另一个高度来俯视新托福,新托福考试就没什么了不起的了!祝所有新托福考生顺利通过新托福考试!
独立部分常用模板:
  Classified Templates:
A or B型
  1. The main reason for my propensity for A is that___________________________。就理由进行解释_____________________。For instance,____________________
  Another reason can be seen by every one is that____________________________。就理由进行解释___________________For example,____________________
  The argument I support in the first paragraph is also in a position of advantage because_____________________________
  Although I agree that there may be a couple of advantages of B, I feel that the disadvantages are more obvious。 Such as________________。
  In a word, ________________________________________________。So, it is sagacious to support the statement that it is better to A。
  2. 将原题复述___________________________________________When faced with the decision of A of B, quite a few would deem that______________________, but others, in contrast, believe A/B as the premier choice and that is also my point。 Among countless factors which influence -A/-B, there are three conspicuous aspects as follows。
  The main reason for my propensity for _________is that___________________
  The second reason can be seen by every person that________。
  In addition, these reasons are also usable when we consider that_________。
  There are some disadvantages in____________________另一种观点的缺点__________。
  In a word, _____________重复观点句并缩写理由__________________。Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach the conclusion that___________。
  3. Some people prefer to A。 others believe B。 When faced with the decision of A or B, quite a few would claim that______________, but others, in contrast, deem A/B as the premier choice and that is also my point。 There are numerous reasons why___________, and I would explore only a few of the most important ones here。
  The main reason why I agree with the above statement, however, is that_____________________。 Take___________as an example, ______________。
  There is another factor that deserves some words here。 Such as ________________________。
  Similarly, these reasons are also usable when we consider that______________。(examples:___________)。
  From the above you might got idea that I agree______________。(repeat the above three reason____________)。So, it is sagacious to support the statement that it is better to _______________。
  4. In my point of view, A is as important as, if not more important than B。 So it is sagacious to choose A。 Among count less factors which influence A。 there are three conspicuous aspects as follows。
  The above point is certainly true if A is considered。 For example,___________________
  Another reason why I agree with the above statement is that I believe that A is better than B。 For instance,_______________
  It would probably not be too kindly disposed to the idea that B is not important 。 B________也好_________。
  In a word, to choose A or B is something of a dilemma to the public because they sometimes are confused by the seemingly good qualities of B, and neglect hte genuinely good aspects of A。 For the reasons presented above, I strongly commit to the notion that A, but not B。
  5. When faced with the decision of A or B, quite a few would claim that A, but others, in contrast, deems B as the premier choice and that is also my point。 This quite different view is based on the propensity of following points。
  We may look into every possible reason; however, fore most reason for B is ____________________。 For example, ______________。
  Also, ________________________。
  This is arbitrary to judge B according only to the excuse I mentioned in the above paragraph。
  Similarly, these reasons are also usable when we consider that________________。
  Admittedly, __________________A也有好的地方______________。By he same token, however, ______________B更好____________。Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach the conclusion that_____________。
  6.  When it comes to______________, Nevertheless, in my part, I prefer A rather than B as my inclination。 My arguments for this point are listed as follows。
  I agree with the statement that _________without reservation since___________。
  Naturally___________。 It can be given a concrete example__________。
  A more essential factor why I advocate the argument of __________is that。 Obviously ________________。Take the case of a thing that____________。
  Furthermore, what is worth noticing fact is that ________________。 This demonstrates the undeniable fact that__________________。
  Of course, choosing B also has advantages to some extent,_______________此处论述B的1-2优点___________。But if all these factors are contemplated, the advantages of A carry more weight than those of B。 From what has been discussed above, we may finally draw the conclusion that_____________。
  7.  ____________改写并复述题目____________。The advantages of B carry more weight than those of A。 There are numerous reasons why __________, and I would explore only a few of the most important ones here。
  One of the primary cause is that_______________________。
  What is also worth noticing fact is that_____________________。
  Furthermore, ________________________。
  Although I agree that there may be couple of disadvantages to_________________。I fell that the advantages are more obvious_____________。
  _______________, Given the factors I have just outlined, I can only say that___________________。
  8.  ____________改写并复述题目____________。When faced with decision of A or B, quite a few would claim that ___________, but others, in contrast, deem A/B as the premier choice and that is also my point。 Among countless factors which influence _________, there are three conspicuous aspects as follows。
  The main reason for my propensity for ________________ is that _____________。
  Another reason can be seen by every person is that___________________。
  The argument I support in the first paragraph is also in a position of advantage because ________________________。
  In a word, ___________________。 Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach the conclusion that ____________________。
  9.  From my point of view, it is advisable to choose A rather than B。 My arguments for this point are listed as follows。
  The main reason for my propensity for ____________________ is that ________________。
  There is another factor that deserves some words here。
  In a word, ________________________。 While it is true that the argument, I disagree hold a little bit of water, I think_______________。
  单一命题形式:
  1. The answer of this statement depends on your own experience and life style。 In my point view, buying computers is as important as, if not more important than, buying books。 So it is sagacious to ____________。Among countless factors which influence the choice, these are three conspicuous aspects as follows。
  The main reason for my propensity for__________is that____________。
  Another reason can be seen by every person is that________________。
  Furthermore,______________。
  In short,_________________复述前文中的理由______________。
  Advantages or disadvantages:
  ____________改写并复述题目____________。 There may be by one or two disadvantages to ___________________; however, I believe that there are far more advantages。 My arguments for this point are listed as follows。
  First of all, perhaps one disadvantages to____________is that______________。For instance, __________________。 Another drawback to _____________involves the possibility that____________。 For example, ____________。
  Even though there may be one or two disadvantages to____________, the advantages far outweigh them。 The main reason for my propensity for __________is that _________。 For example_____________。
  Another reason for my inclination for _____________ is that _________________。 For example, _________________。
  In a word, in spite of the fact that there may be a couple of disadvantages to _____________, I feel that the advantages are more obvious___________。重复优点__________。Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach the conclusion that _____________。
  agree or disagree型
  1. Nowadays, some may hold the opinion that ____________________。 But others have a negative attitude。 As far as I am concerned, I agree that ____________。 My arguments for this point are listed as follows。
  I agree with the statement that ______________________without reservation since ________________。
  Another reason why I agree with the above statement is that I believe that________________。
  In a word, _________________________。 Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach the conclusion that__________。
  2. Some people prefer to A, others believe B, Nowadays some may hold the opinion that ________________, but others have a negative attitude。 As far as I am concerned, I agree/disagree that_______________。 MY arguments for this point are listed as follows。
  One of the primary causes is that_______________________。
  Examples_______________。
  But there is a further more subtle point we must consider。 Examples。
  What is more_______________。 Examples___________
  General speaking, __________。 Recognizing the fact that _______________should drive us to conclude that______________。
  3. Some people argue as if it is a general truth that a _____________________________。But to be frank, I cannot agree with them。 There are numerous reasons why I hold no confidence on them, and I would explore only a few primary ones here。
  The main problem with this argument is that it is ignorant o the basic fact that______________解释本段中心___________。
  Another reason why I disagree with the above statement is that I believe that______________。
  What is more, some students are interested in____________。
  In a word, ________________。
  
III. 模板提炼法:
  The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the behavior of stags. The professor shows how the actions of animal can be interpreted in different ways. For example, some people interpret the stag’s actions as being for the “good of the species,” but the professor shows that the stag is actually acting in self-interest. This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that the crickets’ behavior can be interpreted as helping only individual crickets and not the group as a whole. The professor then talks about the results of the experiment, which seems to indicate the crickets are acting only in self-interest.
  Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the intelligence of animals and insects. As he states, it would seem to require a lot of intelligence to evaluate how a behavior will affect an entire species. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely; a cricket is probably unable to think of the consequences of its actions. It is more likely that the cricket is only acting out of self-preservation, as the professor indicates.
  The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about__________________________________.
  The professor shows that_____________________________________.
  For example, ______________________________, but the professor shows that_______________________________________.
  This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that_________________________________.
  The professor then talks about_________________________, which seems to indicate that___________________________.
  Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about__________________________________.
  As he states, it would seem to___________________________.
  This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely;_____________________________________.
  It is more likely that________________________, ad the professor indicates.
  下面这篇是满分填空法的具体举例:文章来源于TOEFL官方指南
  The lecturer talks about research conducted by a firm that used the group system to handle their work。 He says that the theory stated in the passage was very different and somewhat inaccurate when compared to what happened for real。
  First, some members got free rides。 That is, some did not work hard but got recognition for the success nonetheless。 This also indicates that people who worked hard was not given recognition they should have got。 In others words, they were not given the opportunity to “shine”。 This directly contradicts what the passage indicates。
Second, groups were slow in progress。 The passage says that groups are more responsive than individuals because of the number of people involved and their aggregated resources。 However, the speaker talks about how the firm found out that groups were slower than individuals in decision making。 Groups needed more time for meetings, which are necessary procedures in decision making。 This was another part where experience contradicted theory。
Third, influential people might emerge, and lead the group towards glory or failure。 If the influent people are going in the right direction there would be no problem。 But in the cases where they go in the wrong direction, there is nobody that has enough influence to counter the decision made。 In other words, the group might turn out into a dictatorship, with the influential part as the leader, and might be less flexible in thinking。 They might become one-sided, and thus fail to succeed。

Part Two 语法
希望大家注意写完后的检查,不要让小错误再使你降低分数!
I.Post-writing Activities
1. Content and Organization:
1.1 Introduction:
  a) Is there a general statement that “locates” the topic for the reader?
  b) Is there background information that interests the reader?
  c) Is there a thesis statement that interprets the topic and controls the entire essay?
  d) Is there an organizer that gives the plan of the essay body? (not always necessary)
1.2 body paragraph:
  a) Is there an opening transition that shows the ordering system (e.g., time, degree of importance, familiarity)?
  b) Is there a controlling idea that controls the paragraph and supports the thesis?
  c) Are there enough supporting points?
  d) Is there sufficient detail?
  e) Are the supporting points ordered (e.g., time, degree of importance, familiarity)?
  f) Are signals used between various points within the paragraph?
1.3 conclusion:
  a) Is it concerned to the final body paragraph (by a key word or idea or by a transition)?
  b) Does it refer to the thesis statement?
  c) Is there a summary related to the various body paragraphs?
  d) Is there a statement of belief that advises, suggests, recommends, predicts, or offers a solution?
  Not all English essays demonstrate all of the features listed above. Indeed many good English essays do not satisfy such formula. As a writer, you may decide when features such as those listed are important and when your message might be improved by being less direct. This list is provided to help you as learning writer.
2. Language use:
  a) Are the sentence forms generally correct?
  b) Does each subject noun have a verb, and are clauses joined by connecting words?
  c) Do parallel structures use the same grammar forms for their content unites?
  d) Do sentence topics/subject nouns relate to topics or comments of earlier sentences?
  e) Are prepositions followed by nouns or noun phrases?
  f) Is a comma used when an adverb phrases comes before a sentence base?
  g) Is a comma used to separate a relative clause that describes from the sentence base?
  h) Are verbs in the correct tenses?
  i) Do nouns agree in number with their verbs?
  j) Do singular third-person present tense verbs end in “S”?
  k) Do nouns that require articles have them?
  l) Is spelling generally correct?

Part Three 句型
不论是雅思还是托福的写作部分,评分标准中非常重要的一项就是句型结构,要求句型结构做到丰富多变。那到底什么样的句型才是高分句型呢? 怎样才能做到句型丰富呢?这是很多学生的疑问,也是我在教学中一直思考的问题。通过不断地归纳和总结,将下面这十种高分句型介绍给大家。不需要你全部都用上,因为只要用上几种就足以使你的写作成绩提高一个甚至几个档次。
1. 定语从句。
这应该算是写作中最常用的一种句型之一。适当地运用定语从句可以给你的文章增色不少。
例如,下面的这两个句子用上定语从句马上就变成了一个漂亮的复杂句。
Bad books contain evil → Bad books, in which there might be much description about violence, superstition, and sex, contain evil thoughts.
2. 状语从句。
在写作当中运用的最多的是以下五种状语从句,即原因状语从句,让步状语从句,条件状语从句,时间状语从句和目的状语从句。
a. 原因状语从句:常由because, as, since和for引导
Eg: Nonetheless, I am still in favor of space travel, for its merits far outweigh demerits.
尽管如此,我还是赞成太空探险,因为它的好处远远大于坏处。
b. 让步状语从句:常由although, though, even though/ if, as long as和notwithstanding引导
Eg: Although this view is wildly held, this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place.
尽管这一观点被广泛接受,很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点、任何年龄进行。
c. 条件状语从句:常由if, on the condition that和providing that引导
Eg: If you want to achieve something or intend to fulfill one of your ambitions, you must work hard, make efforts and get prepared.
假如你要取得成就或要实现你的雄心壮志,你必须努力工作、艰苦奋斗、准备好条件。
d. 时间状语从句:常由when和while引导
Eg: When it comes to education, the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study.
说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习。
e. 目的状语从句: 常由so that和in order that引导
Eg: Millions of people have to spend more time and energy on studying new skills and technology so that they can keep a favorable position in job market.
成千上万的人们不得不花费更多的精力和时间学习新的技术和知识,使得他们在就业市场能保持优势。
3. 宾语从句。
Eg: Some people claimthat government should be mainly responsible for the environmental pollution.
一些人认为政府应对环境污染负主要责任。
Eg: Many experts point out that, along with the development of modern society, it is an inevitable result and there is no way to avoid it.
许多专家指出这是现代社会发展必然的结果,无法避免。
4.  同位语从句。
Eg: It is an undeniablefact that environmental pollution becomes increasingly serious.
环境污染变得越来越严重是不可否认的事实。
Eg: No one can deny the basic fact that it is impossible for average workers to master those high-technology skills easily.
没有人能否认这一基本事实:对于一般工人来讲,轻松掌握这些技术是不可能的。

Part Four 词汇
   首先,我们先来看看词汇量。所谓词汇量,从宏观出发指的是你所掌握的单词总数。比如说你为了参加托福考试,整日茶饭不思,大门不出在家苦苦求索,用无数大脑细胞换来的单词记忆量。这个首先保证的是你的阅读能力,当你看到这个单词的时候好像形同陌路,也有点似曾相识,但是可以很大程度上帮助你理解整篇文章的意思,如此一来,你做TOEFL阅读部分的时候,词汇量的大小决定了你对文章的认知程度。可是对于写作而言,这个单词量就要另当别论了,或许你可以有几万个单词在大脑里,可是谈到写作,就很难用单词量来衡量你的具体应用了;换句话说,你认识他们每一个人,但是他们是不是认识你就不好说了。

很多同学背单词的坚韧精神让我佩服不已,但一如既往地记忆的确很好,可是在写作方面还是有很多苦恼:一般是提笔忘字或者高级词汇的使用,还有就是句型过于简单罗列,使得整篇文章缺少亮点和层次感。想要避免提笔忘字,就要谈到词汇要怎么记忆了,纯粹的单词表记忆,破坏了单词之间的联系性,积累写作方面的单词,最好不要逐一地背单词表,按照字母顺序排列的单词,彼此之间的联系太少。针对这一特点,市场上TOEFL写作类的图书都做了很多调整,经常在每篇范文之后附加了文章中好的词汇和短语,这样在你学习了范文的写法之后,再回味一下文章中的词汇精华,一举两得。如果有充分的时间,可以选择一些文字类新闻多一些的英文网站,Yahoo,MSN之类的就不错。通过阅读新闻来积累单词,首先很多社会新闻可以成为我们写作的构思素材,其次多元化的新闻,不容易产生死背单词的枯燥感。
   关于高级词汇在TOEFL写作中的应用,我觉得要顺其自然。有些考生总是喜欢找一些级别高的单词,甚至是被人冷落的单词进行记忆,这就好像让莎士比亚去考托福一样,级别相差太多。我见过很多学生,尤其是高中生,因为记忆力还保持在茂盛期,所以偏爱这种类型的记忆;这样做的优点在于你的单词量扩展得很好,基本可以参加GRE的考试,缺点就是牺牲太多时间,也会损害记忆能力。针对TOEFL考试,词汇上的升级其实也很简单,我们来看下边这个例子:
 magnificent   significant  important
  具体应用到句子中:
1. WTO is planning an important conference about commercial regulations.
2. It is a significant contribution to the society.
3. We have visited the magnificent Forbidden city.
  这几个词大家都很熟悉,都有“重要,华丽”的意思。可是作为同级比较的形容词,它们之间的关系则是递进式的,其强调的重要或者华丽的程度也在逐渐提升。如果你按照这样的顺序来进行记忆,不但可以记牢这几个单词,而且可以得到如何应用的真谛。所以所谓的高级词汇的应用,要从基础开始,打好基础之后再进行积累,切忌操之过急。再来看看下边这个例子:
Humility humiliate humiliated humiliating
  这几个词汇都是由humility衍生出来的,但是意思大不相同,humility是我们的传统美德,叫做“谦卑”,和pride正好是反义词;而humiliate却是“使人蒙尘”的意思,humiliate和humiliating 一般口语使用偏多,指的是“感觉很丢脸,没有面子”。例如:I feel humiliated 或者 it is humiliating. 有时候,与其花费大量时间去记忆新单词和词组,都不如在已经掌握的单词中进行联想性的扩展来的有效和实惠。其实道理很简单,说一个东西好,很好,到非常好,相当好,甚至好到不能再好,这是一个纵向比较的记忆方法,按照级别的不同进行选择性的记忆和使用。
我们再看看下边这个例子:
So amazing are these crewmembers that they have successfully accomplished space walk,what a brilliant mission!
这句话是某英文网站对神舟七号的评价,这个属于句子的倒装,但是强调的内容是amazing。这个词意思很广泛,而且同义词也有很多,例如incredible, wonderful, 甚至unbelievable,这里用amazing是表示难以置信的好,类似incredible,是对太空行走这次任务完成的积极评价,这就是高级词汇的同等记忆了,这几个词都有“美妙,奇妙,难以置信”之类的意思,记忆的方法属于横向比较,也就是说,都是表示好到不能再好之类的意思,但是好的方向不同,所以单词的选择会有区别。

Part Five 修辞
我们来看看句子吧。如果说单词是句子的灵魂,那句子就是文章的基石,而句型则是不同品质的基石,可以让整篇文章充满多样的色彩,读起来让人很有兴趣。虽然句型的变化很多,可是针对TOEFL文章的特点,一篇接近300字的议论文,IBT在注重文章的完整性和一致性的同时,也需要文章有精彩的内容。可是文章篇幅有限,我们仅仅需要熟练地应用几个不同的句型,就一定会给评分人留下很深刻的印象了
句子中的修辞
我们看看下边的几个例句:
Knowledge will never lie.
知之为知之,不知为不知,是智也。
这个句子使用了拟人的修辞手法,赋予了knowledge生命,形象化了知识的严谨性,同时也避免了直接翻译的繁琐冗长。
2. That information comes very impressively to everyone in the job market。
那一信息使所有正在找工作的人为之一震。
这个句子也间接使用了拟人的手法,人性化了Information这个词,come可以把人们接受信息的过程表达的更生动。
3. Confidence never fails to play a significant role in your entire life
自信在你一生中扮演极其重要的角色
这个句子中never和fail表示双重否定,用以加强肯定的成分。
这几种句子中的修辞手法都可以使句子的意思表达起来更生动,让人读起来容易接受,同时也避免了直接翻译的很多缺点。
强调句的应用和举例说明
孔子《论语》中的这个经典语句可谓家喻户晓,一句“有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎”道出了中华民族作为礼仪之邦的特点。在托福中,这句话可以应用在关于friendship的文章,这句话直译过来说的是:有朋友从很远的地方来看你难道不是一件很开心的事情吗?通过中文理解,我们知道这句话所强调的部分是:一件很开心的事情。“开心”有很多词汇可以选择,常用的有happy和glad,高级一点的有enjoyable和pleasant,再高级一点的还有incredible和delightful。应用到实际写作中,可以使用it is 做一个强调句来凸显这句话的特点,例如:
It’s delightful to have friends from distant lands。
在这个句子中,除了delightful以外,其他句子成分都很平常,每个人都会写,所以即使是评卷人看到这个句子也不会觉得稀奇,那么作为强调句,恰好是delightful这个词,代表了一种发自心底的喜悦和开心,让读过这个句子的人都有眼前一亮的感觉,这也就达到了强调句的作用。然而happy和glad也都有快乐之意,但是和delightful相比就显得不够级别了,明显高兴的程度不一样,delightful更能显示一种喜悦带来的兴奋,迎接千里迢迢来访的朋友这样的表达最恰当不过了。可以起到强调作用的句型结构有很多,我们能够用到的同位语从句和倒装句都有这样的作用,例如:
It is an undeniable fact that human activities harm the Earth.
这句话中that后边引导的就是要强调的内容,即an undeniable fact. 为了突出harm the Earth是一个不可否认的事实,做成这样一个句子。
Only through effective measures can the government resolve the dispute.
这句话强调的就是only后边的effective measures,而且翻译过来是只有同过有效的措施,强调的唯一性,无二法门。
倒装句子的特点就是把句子倒过来说,这样的解释过于直白但却很实际。根据英语句型结构特点,因为要强调才会选择去倒装。我们看看下边的两个例子:
1. So severe is this problem that we have no alternative but to take some feasible measures to deal with it.
2. So amazing are these crewmembers that they have successfully accomplished space walk.
句子中划线的部分就是倒装结构的重点强调所在,关于倒装句的作用,前边已然讲过,这里就不多说了。在TOEFL的具体应用中,我们需要在写作实践里进行检验。
Only through education can we rise in the world.
Only by receiving education can we rise in the world.
谚语的选择和使用方法
谚语,即proverb。很多都陪伴我们一路成长,有很多的警世名言都可以应用到写作中,可以给你的文章提升说服力。谚语的应用一般要注意一下几点:
第一, 要考虑到东西方文化的差异。毕竟我们的文章是给外国友人欣赏的,所以要注意谚语的背景。说句不客气的话,我们上下五千年的历史长河里流淌了太多的文化,有太多东西让这些可爱的阅卷人看不懂了。
例如:no pain, no gain 不劳无获,no sacrifice , no gain 不入虎穴,焉得虎子
这两个no…no…的成语很多人都知道,其含义可以被全世界人接受,所以在TOEFL的文章中被频繁使用。 但是,no hunt, no bark 这个成语,直译过来是说不去打猎就不需要听到狗叫了,成语里的典故讲的是韩信说过的一句话:鸟尽弓藏,兔死狗烹。这句话我们很容易理解,而因为文化背景的区别,从原文理解起来对西方逻辑有点困难,所以不建议各位在托福的写作中应用。
第二, 学会灵活地运用谚语。挑选谚语是第一步,接下来的就是你如何去使用它了。比较常见的是作为主旨句出现在段落之中,这个前边提到了一些,例如:Knowledge will never lie 和It’s delightful to have friends from distant lands。表示友谊重要性的还有Friendship never sinks即友谊之船永不沉没,等等。
以下提供一些写作中比较常见的好的谚语,希望各位斟酌使用。
Practice makes perfect 熟能生巧
Patience is the road to understanding 理解万岁
All roads lead to Rome 条条大路通罗马
Attitudes define everything. 态度决定一切
Every coin has its two sides. 有利有弊
One’s meat is another’s poison. 己所不欲,勿施于人

讲了这么多的句型和从句,应用起来也要注意方法,切忌移花接木,强买强卖。我见过很多考生喜欢写强调句,因为格式简单,模仿起来也容易,但是如果在每一个段落都出现倒装或者强调句,那也就不能凸现强调的意义了,反而让人感觉重复,索然无味。有些时候文章的段落里是不需要大篇幅应用从句的,强行介入的从句反而会使句子读起来文字繁冗罗列,好像负担很重的样子;谚语的使用要谨慎小心,合理的使用可以让阅卷人对你佩服的五体投地,盲目的应用可能会让人曲解你所表达的意思,所以我们不要做画蛇添足的事,对于TOEFL文章而言,更多精力要放在段落的整体性上,不需要应用的语法和词汇就干脆不用,宁缺毋滥。

构思协调结构,结构配合论证,论证揣摩方法,文章才会有整体感和说服力;单词组成句子,句子形成段落,段落构成文章,不仅仅针对TOEFL,任何一篇好的文章都不是一个孤立的个体,而是一点一滴积累起来的,有一种群拥而起的感觉。文章中闪光的词汇和句型,都是点滴的精华,使得你的文章可以让人读后有一种赏心悦目的感觉,如果这样的话,你的作文就成功了,因为只有读者说好的文章才是真正意义上的好文章。

以下贡献一篇IBT托福的议论文范文,文章结构上遵循规则,总分总的格式贯穿到底。内容上句式寻求清晰明了,语言也符合first draft的要求,论证则以例证为主导,通篇阅读下来有很好的整体性, 推荐各位考生模仿。

Private highway or Public transportation
I believe that our government should spend more money on transportation. Here is why.

First of all, public transportation such as buses and subways can deliver a great amount of people at the same time. For instance, subways can always transfer hundreds of people to their destinations as soon as possible. Long distance buses will give a handful of help to many people who work in a different city as they live. In addition, local buses are heroes for making our everyday life easier.

Secondly, public transportation can effectively relieve the traffic congestion in rush hour. For example, living in a metropolitan like New York or Toronto, people are highly recommended to take public transportation. Not only the gasoline price today is scaring people away, but they always agree that it can take them forever to get out of a traffic jam in rush hour.
Last but not least, buses and subways today are typically powered by low emission fuels and even electricity. The government should realize that this will make a great contribution to the city’s environment. In the other hand, environmental problem has been raised as a global concern. I think our government should not consider the future impact of car emissions at last; otherwise they will eventually spend more money from their budget to save the environment.

As a matter of fact, highway improvement is somehow required as well. Nowadays, in the city I am living, almost every family owns a car. My parents are living outside the city, they drive to work everyday. In holidays, they will invite me to have a trip. We can plan the trip wherever we  

want to go. People have more freedom to travel with cars, and it turns out that highways are always occupied during weekend.

To conclude, public transportation requires more attention from our government. For instance, such as the quality of buses, the appropriate increase of routes and the safety concerns.


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