雅思写作概述(上)

雅思考试全程考试时间为2小时55分钟。其中,写作在听力、阅读部分之后出现,是笔试的最后一项。雅思写作考试要求在60分钟内完成两篇作文(Task 1 and Task 2)。写作中,以移民为主的培训类(General Training)和以留学为主的学术类(Academic)试题类型有所不同。
  Task 1要求考生在20分钟内完成150字以上的文章。G类(培训类)要求考生针对题目要求写一封信来询问某方面信息或阐释某种状况。到目前为止,出现较多的书信种类有投诉信、请求信、建议信、寻找失物信、邀请信等。而A类(学术类)则考核图表为主。考得较多的有曲线图、柱状图、饼状图、表格等。也有可能考到两种不同种类的图。另外,流程图和示意图也偶尔考到。
  Task 2 要求考生在40分钟内写作一篇不少于250字的议论文。A类和G类在Task 2方面非常相似。考生可能需要对某个观点发表支持或反驳意见,或者讨论针锋相对的一组观点,或者解释某种问题出现的原因并提出相应的解决办法。
  雅思评分按9分制。基本上,移民或读语言学校起码要5分(Modest User)。留学需要6分(Competent User)以上。如果读的是法律、传媒、管理等名校的研究生的话,写作最好达到7分(Good User)。但考生最后写作成绩并不是Task 1和Task 2的简单平均,而是以Task 2为主。
  雅思写作的评分标准不象四六级或托福采用整体式的评分,而是分项式评分(analytical scoring)。也就是说,考官给考生并不只打一个分数,而是根据具体的评分细则分项给分。
书信或图表评分标准:
  Task 1(书信或图表)按照以下三方面评分:Task Fulfilment(完成任务);Coherence and Cohesion(连贯与衔接);Vocabulary and Sentence Structure(词汇与句子结构)。
  Task Fulfilment指的是考生是否能够在正确审题的基础上完成题目的指令。具体说来,书信作文应该完成书信的使命,题目里的每一项要求都不可或缺。图表作文应该在对于图表所给出的数据进行分析的基础上指出图表的总体趋势和走向,并点明与总趋势不相吻合的特殊之处,而且还要有数据的支持。
  Coherence and Cohesion指的是文章通过一定的衔接手段(Cohesive Devices)来表明上下文的连贯性(Coherence)。衔接手段,或叫语篇纽带,经常用的有(logical)逻辑、(grammatical)语法和(semantic)语义三方面的连接词(connectors)。
  Vocabulary and Sentence Structure指的是文章的语言表达。5分或5分以下的作文一般语法错误较多。6分作文则一般没有致命的语法错误,用词和句子基本准确。而7分以上的作文用词丰富(Variety)、句子结构复杂(Complexity)。
议论文评分标准:
  Task 2(议论文)的三方面评分标准是:Arguments, Ideas and Evidence(论证,论点和论据);Communicative Quality(交流质量);Vocabulary and Sentence Structure(词汇与句子结构)。
  Arguments, Ideas and evidence涉及对于议论文的内容要求。具体说来,应该是内容切题,论据合理,论证充分。
  对于Ideas(内容)而言,应该注意的是不要出现跑题。有的考生由于词汇量有限,导致题目中的单词不认识,从而写作的时候写离题了。比如:Nowadays, international tourism is the biggest industry in the world. Unfortunately, international tourism creates tension rather than understanding between people from different cultures. Do you agree or disagree? 如果考生不懂international tourism是什么意思的话,这道题是没法写的。但是,雅思写作涉及的词汇量并不是大得令人生畏,大概有六七千左右。考生万一碰到个把单词不理解的话,完全可以通过上下文加以推测。比如上面这句话中tension可能是个生词,但是如果考生能想到rather than表示对比关系的话,可以推断tension应该和understanding(理解)形成反义词,那就应该是接近于误解,即紧张关系的意思。所以,对于单词,考生应该平时注意积累,应试时根据上下文推断。
  有的考生可能题目里面每个单词都认识依然写跑题,那可能是因为对于所涉及的题材不了解,没话可说。比如:When a country develops its technology, the traditional skills and ways of life die out. It is pointless to try and keep them alive. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? 如果考生毫不了解所谓的传统技能和生活方式的话,肯定对此束手无策。雅思议论文涉及contemporary social issues of common interest(人们普遍感兴趣的当代社会问题),考生应该平时注意这方面的知识积累和主动思考。

雅思写作评分标准及考生应试策略
与其他单项一样,雅思写作也采取九分制,每半分一个等级,考官主要从四个方面给考生打分:内容(Content)、组织结构(Organisation)、词汇(Vocabulary)和语法(Grammar),下面我们逐一看看具体的打分标准:
内容分:总标准--- 文章内容是否准确(accurate)、切题(relevant)、恰当(appropriate)。除本项外,其他三项打分大小作文标准相同。我们分开详述:先谈谈图表作文,图表作文内容打分有三个子项:1. 是否对信息有个总体概览(General overview):图表作文的命题要求就是要考察考生对以图表形式呈现的事实性信息的归纳能力,要做到这一点,考生在文章开头段的主要任务就是对图表信息进行总体介绍,在日常教学中,笔者一般要求学员写两句话,第一句话简要介绍图表的内容,可以对题干和图表中的信息加以改造;第二句话,说明图表显示出的总体趋势或者显著特点。这个要求相对较高,但是能很好的体现考生对图表信息的归纳能力。2. 是否选择关键特征(key feature)对图表进行描述:中国考生感到很棘手的一个问题就是在中国的各级教育中,无论中英文的写作教学都几乎没有涉及图表作文这种题型,考生往往对于大量数据一筹莫展。很多没有经验的考生能做的就是把所有数据罗列一遍,凑够字数就交差,结果可想而知。如何在图表作文得高分?如前文所述,很重要一点是要明确图表作文考察的是信息归纳能力。如何有效归纳信息呢?就是要求学会分析图表,找出关键特征数据加以描述。3. 是否使用恰当的信息来说明要点。议论文方面也有四个标准:1.作者的立场(position)是否清楚?雅思议论文要求考生要给出自己的立场,如果通篇文章找不到作者对于一个观点的看法是不达标的。一篇合格的雅思议论文不仅要有立场,立场还要一致。笔者就曾改过这样的议论文,首段考生赞成题目的观点,经过 3段论证,结尾居然是因此我反对该观点。如此立场不清的文章内容分一定会失分。2.分论点(main ideas)是否清楚(clear)?在议论文的正文,一定要有2-3个理由段论证自己的立场,可是如果只有赞成和反对的立场是无法展开论证的,每个理由段都要有分论点对立场加以展开,而这些分论点就应该是本段论述的核心和主题。有效的主题句即分论点+支持句的理由段结构能很好的解决跑题和论证不知所云的问题。3.分论点间的联系(link)是否紧密?分论点应该在审题思路拓展时一并考虑,分论点是否重叠,是否能从多角度论证自己立场,这些都是考生拿分的关键。4.是否有相关(relevant)的结论(conclusion)?在教学中,笔者会介绍8种不同的首段写法,如果开头问了一个问题,结尾就必须回答这个问题;如果首段开门见山阐述了观点,结尾可以重申这个观点。总之,前后呼应在英语议论文的写作中也是很有必要的。
组织结构方面,雅思评分的总标准是文章的组织结构是否清晰(clear)有逻辑(logical)。具体有四个子项:1.文章布局 (development)是否有逻辑?笔者认为,这里的布局应包括两个层面:一是宏观布局,如中文的议论文讲究起、承、转、合的布局,这在英文议论文中同样适用,而且起承转合本身符合逻辑,因此在应试作文中是快速进行宏观布局的首选。2.段落(paragraphs)使用是否恰当?一篇文章不论大小作文,至少都应分成三部分,头-中-尾,主体段可以根据不同题目再进行分段。分段不当也会影响得分,而这部分要得分其实是很容易的。3和4. 段内各句、各段间是否有效连接(link)?这是中国考生失分比较多的地方,究其原因,中文强调意连,即句与句间的逻辑关系是内在的,由读者自己理解;而英文更注重形连,即句、段间的连接更多采用各种连接手段来体现逻辑关系。这就不难解释为什么习惯中文写作的中国考生常常写的是几个句子的组合而不是一个段落。笔者在教学中会教给学员按功能归类的多种连接手段,从而既帮助考生有效拓展段落,又增加了段落的连贯性。
词汇量不足被很多考生认为是影响写作的最大问题,雅思考试在这部分的总标准是:对词汇的选择(choice)是否恰当(appropriate)?使用词汇是否准确(accurately)?本部分有5个子项。1.是否使用一定范围(range)的恰当的词汇和表达法。关于这个标准,我们要注意到的是考生不仅要在词汇量上做好准备,还要积累大量表达法;2. 是否使用一些惯用法(idiomatic)和较不常见(less common)的表达?看来词汇方面考官要关注的不仅有数量还应该有词汇的等级,考生在背单词时应多留意用较少见的同义词替换常见的一些词;3.是否避免重复(repeat)用词?同一个意思能否有多种不同的表达方式也是词汇量的体现。4.是否使用词汇的正确形式(correct form)? 不同词类的变形,名词复数等单词形式的正确变化也要注意。5.单词拼写(spelling)是否准确?由于中国考生长期习惯做标准化的客观性试题,导致准确拼写单词难度增加。笔者发明的左手背单词法能有效解决这一问题,大部分人背单词是用右手遮住中文意思,看着英文单词回忆中文意思。而左手背单词法则反之,用左手遮住英文单词,看着中文解释回忆英文单词,从而有效增加积极词汇量。
雅思写作最后一部分的评分标准是语法,总标准是在句子(sentence)和结构(structure)的选择上是否多样化(varied)?语法(grammar)是否准确(accurate)?有4个子项:1. 是否使用简单(simple sentence)和复杂句(complex sentence)?不同结构的英语句子有不同的作用,考察标准强调的是能否根据表达的需要选用不同类型的句子。从这个意义上讲,雅思考试虽然不像大多数中国英语考试那样有语法题型,但是直接通过应用层面来检验考生的语法功底不能不说是雅思考试的高明之处。2.是否使用一定数量(range)准确的结构 (structure)?为了快速有效提高考生的语法水平,常规语法教学显然既费时费力,效果又十分有限。因此,在日常教学过程中,笔者着重教授不同类型文章中表达不同语言功能的常用高分句型,并加以练习,达到内化的目的。3.考官能否理解(understand)考生表达的意思?这个标准很特别,因为其他的标准均是相对客观的标准,而这个标准却非常主观。我们可以设想:如果在一篇雅思考试作文中考官不明白考生所表达的意思,问题是出在谁身上?当然是考生!原因有哪些?小的方面可能是书写,大的方面应该和我们常说的Chinglish密不可分。洋泾浜英语产生的根源是考生在用英语表达时脱不开汉语的思维习惯,从句子结构到表达方式都很汉语化。有的考生甚至逐字对译,当然从句子的语法和表达的内容上都无法让考官理解。高效的解决办法依旧是句型的学习,通过学习地道的表达,考生能进行有效的模仿和套用,既避免了模板作文的嫌疑,又解决中式英语的困扰,真正做到一举两得!4.标点(punctuation)是否准确?大量考生关注的是字词句的写作的正误,却忽略了标点在语法评分标准的重要性。标点(主要是逗号和句点)的使用在英文中是属于语法范畴。错误使用逗句号又是中文写作思维在作祟。汉语对于逗句号的使用相当宽容,作者使用逗句号是根据感觉,所表达的意思没有结束就用逗号,意思结束了就用句号。不同的作者在相同的地方,可能标的符号不一样却不算错误。但英语逗句号的选择是和英语的句子类型有关,一个语法完整的结构即使表达的意思不完整也应用句点。中文以意思来断句,英语依结构来断句。因此,考生必须学会区别不同结构的英语句子才能有效避免标点的错误。
综上所述,雅思写作虽然是听说读写中较难的一部分考试,但是如果能深刻理解评分标准,找出自身潜在的问题,有针对性的通过课堂教师的教学加以解决,写作成绩是可以得到有效提高的。

雅思A类小作文写作技巧

A类小作文逻辑分析
小作文是解说文性质的书面产出,不同于一般的记述,除了要把其中的数据表达出来,更重要的是要进行分析。如果小作文写成纯粹的数据罗列,也就是我们常说的一锅粥,是不可能得高分的。
常见的小作文的逻辑分析方法包括:总分、比较(类似比和相反比)、分类、因果、时空和过程分析等。
总分逻辑主要用于写pie chart 等,开始时要介绍一下总共有的项目数,其他图表中也可能会用到总体趋势分析,如线图中某一条线可能整体上升、下降或持平,但其中基本都会有某一个点是例外,常见的句型可以把总趋势作为主句,后面接独立主格或者with结构。
比较逻辑是大部分学生很会用的,无论是类似还是相反比较,只是要注意用稍微复杂点的句式。如表示两个项目很类似,大部分同学会把第一项用一个简单句写出来,然后第二个句子前面加上Like A, B also …。而要表示相对照,一般就会想到用but。除了句式的复杂,更要注意比较的每个句子尽量不要写成一样的形式,或者全部写成原始数据的积累,可以先找一个基准点,用一个句子把其中的数据写出来,第二个与之相比较的句子可以写比其稍高、多…%或者是几倍或几分之几。
对于图表中的数据较多,一般要用到分类,可以根据大体趋势如增多、减少、频繁变化或者几乎不变分成几个大类。几乎每个数据都罗列出来的文章也得不到高分,一般我们建议大家不要列出4项以上。其实每次考试中不论哪种图表几乎都至少有一个特殊点,这就和前面的总趋势加一个单点是一样的。
图表中有时候会有原因分析,这种情况下原因是一组要分析的数据,必须要写。但小作文忌讳把图中的信息粗略写完,加上大量的自己的主观评价,多数考生会根据自己的臆断写出原因分析,这样有悖于解说文的客观陈述的本意而成为议论文。根据考生回馈失分较重。
地图或流程图不同于一般的数据图表,可能更强调空间和时间的逻辑分析,所以写这两种图表时要尽量以空间的转移或者过程的衔接为线索。此外总分、比较等逻辑也应体现在其中。
总之,写作和口语其实都很注重逻辑分析,条理清楚的文章更为考官青睐。

A类小作文/图表作文解析
图表作文的内容要求在题目中都有体现,小作文的题目分成文字和图表两部分:文字部分每次考试都是类似的,四段话分别讲述时间要求(1),图表信息概述(2),内容要求(3)和文字量要求(4)。图表作文写作时间为20分钟左右,并未加以严格限制,写作时可以节省出时间用于Task 2,也可以占用任务2时间,但是根据经验,临场时按照题目推荐的20分钟进行写作比较合理。图表信息概述是对图表内容的整体描述,是临场写作词句的很好素材。内容要求中的关键词汇:总结(summarize),选择和报告(select and report),主要特征(main features)和相关比较(make comparisons where relevant)会在后面内容要求分析中逐个展开。而文字量要求至少150词,临场写作,时间紧迫,另外考虑到词数增加,暴露语言错误的几率增加,加之简洁永远是语言美的一种重要体现形式,小作文词数控制在150词-200词为最佳。
Writing Task 1
  You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.(1)
  The charts below give information about travel to and from the UK, and about the most popular countries for UK residents to visit.(2)
  Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.(3)
  Write at least 150 words.(4)


图表部分中,图名和图例是写作中重要的同义词来源,比如第一幅图中的visit就是图表信息概述中travel的很好的同义词。坐标轴的单位的正确使用则是图表作文内容要求的要点之一。图表描述的是数字规律,而数字离开单位将没有任何意义。比如第一幅图中纵坐标人数的单位是百万(表示单位时用复数 millions),写作中表达具体数字时,如五千三百万,应该是53 million,不能因为图表中单位的复数表达而误写成53 millions。
  图表写作的最高境界是,不看图表,只看小作文,就能够对图表的重要特征有清晰的认识。虽然雅思小作文中最常见的图表包括四类,柱状图、线状图、饼状图和表格,表现形式各异,但是究其本质都是对数据之间规律的形象描述,比如第一幅线状图,较细的曲线代表不同年份英国居民出境旅游人次数,如果把每年的数字用柱状图表达,仍然可以达到同样的效果,所以对各种不同形式图表的规律总结,方法大同小异。现在我们按照上面题目中内容要求中的关键词汇逐个分析:
  总结(summarize)强调对图表中数字的规律进行阐释,而不是仅仅停留在对数据的具体描述,比如在第一幅图中不应去逐年描述英国居民出境或者入境旅游的人次数。
  报告(report)强调客观的描述,任何具有主观色彩,既不同人可能持不同看法的观点,在雅思小作文中都是不妥当的,比如第二幅图中,如果写“在1999年,最受英国旅行者欢迎的国家是法国,因为它有美丽的景色。”这里“它有美丽的景色”,属于我们对图表数据产生原因的一种主观猜测,在雅思图表作文中属于多此一举。
  主要特征(main features)即图表反映的主要数字规律,最常见的规律有趋势和极值两种。具体到第一幅图上就是英国居民出境旅游人数和海外居民到英国旅游人数从1979年到1999年都在增加。无论是出境游还是入境游,1979年人次数最少,1999年最多。而第二张饼状图中,描述的5个独立的数字,没有趋势,只有极值,不难发现,法国(France)和西班牙(Spain)在1999年最受欢迎的英国人旅游目的地,明显超过其余国家。
  选择(Select)强调在数字多,特征多的图表中,应综合考虑图表内容和文字量要求选择主要特征,忽略次要特征。比如第一幅图中,容易发现,1985年到1988年英国居民出境旅游人数增加速度最快(数学好的同学不难理解,这个特征本质是一组数据的一阶导数的极值,仍然属于常见数字规律。),也属于第一幅图中的特征,但是考虑到需要在150词-200词范围之内描述两幅图,这个特征作为次要特征可以忽略不写。
  比较(make comparisons where relevant)意为不同数据组之间规律的比较,既可以在同一幅图表内部比较,也可以在图表之间进行比较。比如在第一幅图中,英国居民出境旅游的人次数比外国居民到英国旅游的人次数多,而且增长速度更快。又如考虑两幅图之间信息相关的部分,比如第二幅图所描述的1999年,对应第一幅图中的数字约为53 million。联系两图发现到法国(France)和西班牙(Spain)两个国家的英国旅游者人数就占了当年英国旅游者总人数的20%左右。
  最后需要补充的是细节(Supporting Details),因为仅仅是对主要特征的描述,显然无法写出150词,而且特征也必须有具体数字的支持,比如引用1979年和1999年英国居民出境旅游人次数大约12million和大约53million来支持英国居民出境旅游人次数在1979年到1999年的增加(单调增加的曲线,趋势和极值可以写在一起),又如列举1999年最受英国旅游者欢迎的5个国家的具体接待英国游客人次数来支持法国和西班牙是两大英国游客目的地国。
  总结一下,针对上述图表,第一幅特点是英国居民出境旅游人数和海外居民到英国旅游人数从1979年到1999年都在增加,但是前者比后者更加明显;第二幅图中说明法国和西班牙在1999年最受欢迎的英国人旅游目的地;联系两幅图,我们可以发现仅仅以上两个国家的英国旅游者人数就占了当年英国海外旅游者总人数的20%左右;最后再辅之以必要的细节,就是这道雅思真题内容的全部要点。
  通过以上分析不难发现,雅思图表作文写作内容规律性很强,根据笔者的经验,考前针对20套左右的图表作文进行内容分析,正式考试时在内容上就能保证不失分。

A类图表作文引言段写作要义
STEP ONE:开头段内容的确定
对于图表题的写作,在完成审题工作后,有一个必备的工作是确定主体段的写作内容,也即是说要确定主体段要写哪一些信息点,这些信息点一共要用多少句话来描述。在确定了这一内容后,就明确了主体段的内容和信息量,由此我们可以确定开头段的信息量。举个例子说,如果我们以每句话10个单词来定义的话,150个字的小作文就要求考生至少有16-18句的内容,那么减去考生确定的主体段信息量,剩下的句子就需要用开头段和结尾段来实现。
由此我们能发现,开头段的存在除了起到提纲挈领和行文结构完整化的作用,对于图表信息不够丰富的文章,考生可以通过在书写开头段的时候动一些心思,来丰富文章的内容。因此,朗阁海外考试研究中心建议考生,要写出一个合理的开头,首先需要确定正文的内容是否能够写饱满,是否需要通过开头来满足字数和内容的不足。
STEP TWO:开头段写作结构和表达
根据上一个步骤的信息确定,开头段简单来说可以分为两个部分:第一,转述和改写原题,第二,在需要的时候适当加入一些图表内的概括性信息。
对于“转述和改写原题”这个部分,不外乎原题进行同义词、语法关系和加减单词的变化,我们可以将这个部分用一个固定的结构总结为“这个图表为我们描述了×××时间内在×××地区×××对象的×××方面的信息”。通过这个固定的机构我们可以看出,除了×××的部分,其余的部分都是固定不变的,因此我们完全可以在考试前就确定相关的内容和表达,我们通过例子来说明这一结构。
例: The table below show social and economic indicators of four countries in 1994, according to United Nations statistics. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
 
Indicators                        Canada    Japan    Peru      Zaire   
Annual income per person (in $US) 11100     15760    160       130   
Life expectancy at birth          76        78       51        47   
Daily calorie supply per person   3326      2846     1927      1749   
Adult literacy rate (%)           99        99       68        34 
根据这一结构,开头段可以写的内容为“这个图表为我们描述了1999年内在四个地区在四个经济和社会指标方面的信息”。
所以我们先确定固定内容的写法:
“这个图表”:图表类作文中涉及到的无非线line柱bar饼pie表table四类结合chart,illustration,diagram,graph和table这几个常用的“图表”单词,再加上together with,combined with,as well as等固定表达,开头段的这一个部分完全可以确定下来了;
“描述了”: show,describe,offer an overview,present,compare等,可以用来表达这一概念的动词可谓应有尽有;
“信息”:从宽泛的information,data,figures到具体的percentage,distribution,proportion,考生只需要根据题目的具体要求选择合适的单词即可。
其次我们根据题目的要求可以改写的部分为:
“时间”:单个时间点,多个时间点和时间段都有多种的表达方式,考生只需在考前做好总结的工作即可。
“描述对象”:这往往是改写的难点,可以通过同义词和语法关系的替换来实现。例如social and economic indicators可以替换为indicators in both social and economic fields/ economic and social conditions in different aspects等
因此,综合以上的信息,一个简单的开头段就完成了:The given table provides an overview of social and economic conditions from different aspects in four countries in the year 1994.
然后,对于同样的题材,我们讨论第二个部分“在需要的时候适当加入一些图表内的概括性信息”。这一部分主要应用在主体段内容单薄的情况下,对于这一部分,我们主要可以通过两种方式来实现。
下定义和解释说明的表达方式:首先请大家牢记in other words, namely等下定义的表达方式和take … into consideration,in terms of,considering等补充说明的表达方式的正确使用,然后将其灵活的应用到对图表中文字信息的补充说明上。
举个例子来说,以上题为例,我们可以刚刚的开头改写为The given table provides an overview of social and economic conditions from different aspects in four countries, namely, Canada, Japan, Peru and Zaire in the year 1994.
或者The given table provides the information of social and economic conditions in four countries in the year 1994, in terms of the annual income per person, life expectancy at birth, daily calorie supply per person and the literacy rate. All the date is based on the year 1994.
插入图表中的总趋势:对于某些有总体趋势的图表,考生可以在开头段中就加入对总趋势的描述,此举首先可以补充内容的不足,同时可以对全文结构起到总括性的作用。
通过以上的总结,我们不难发现,对于图表类作文的开头段,其内容和形式“丰俭由人”,考生完全可以根据图表内容的信息量,“审时度势”,来确定开头段的写作内容和模式,并在在构思完毕之后以最快的时间内完全这个部分的行文。

表格图解题策略
在雅思考试A类小作文的四大基本图形(即曲线图、柱形图、饼图和表格图)中,表格图往往是广大考生所最头疼的图形了,很大一部分考生会碰到以下状况,比如表格看懂了,但是因为数据繁多而且凌乱,一时半会儿找不出很明显的特征,不知从何下手;或是找到了很多特征,但是不知道用什么样的顺序、结构和衔接方式把这些特征条理清晰地传达出来;又或是大体清楚该写什么,怎么写,但是在具体写的时候,老是丢三落四的,把一些信息给遗漏掉了等等。这时,考生所面临的主要不是语言方面的问题,而是写作步骤和写作思路方面的问题,也就是不知道应该用什么样的步骤和思路把表格图中那些看似复杂无序的数据自然而且毫不遗漏地贯穿起来。本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的写作组专家将主要针对表格图的写作步骤及其写作思路展开探讨。
下面将用一个典型的表格图实例来说明此类图形的解题策略。
The table below lists the number of nights of occupancy of hotel rooms in Australia during the peak month of September in the years 2000 and 2001 and the difference expressed in percentage
 
Number of Nights Occupancy
(in thousand)   
                        September 2000   September 2001     % change   
New South Wales           1,299.9          1,135.8         -12.6   
Victoria                    514.1            522.7           1.7   
Queensland                  969.9          1,011.3           4.3   
South Australia             177.6            181.2           2.0   
Western Australia           331.7            327.9          -1.1   
Tasmania                     71.2             70.9          -0.4   
Northern Territory          113.9            123.5           8.4   
Australian Capital Territory 84.3            102.7          21.8   
Australia Total           3,562.6          3,476.0          -2.4 
 
首先,拿到考题以后,快速浏览题目中的文字信息,即The table below lists the number of nights occupancy of hotel rooms in Australia during the peak month of September in the years 2000 and 2001 and difference expressed in percentage,重点关注研究对象(nights occupancy)、数据类型(number and percentage)和时间(2000 and 2001)这三大要素,明确在主体段的写作中要注意数据类型的变化和时态一致问题。
 其次,看题目中的表格图形,看图形时也要先看文字说明,包括标题、标注和单位,弄懂数据所代表的信息,而非数据本身。一般情况下,表格图中的文字说明还是比较容易识别的,就如同曲线图中的横纵轴一样。上图中横向代表不同的时间,纵向则代表不同的地区。但是朗阁海外考试研究中心提醒考生需要特别注意表格的最后一列和最后一行,有可能是数据的叠加、平均或者对比,这张图也是如此,最后一列代表不同时间之间的变化趋势及幅度,最后一行则是数据和变化的总结,曾经就有比较粗心的同学,出现了“Australia Total”的数量最多的笑话。同时,标题下方的单位(in thousand)和change前面的%千万不能遗漏,不然后面写的数据都是不准确的。
 然后,筛选信息,圈关键数据。表格图写作不是记流水帐,需要面面俱到,但是关键数据可是一个都不能少的。为了防止遗漏,朗阁海外考试研究中心建议考生可以在看题的过程中把这些数据都圈出来,通常包括总数、极值、突变值等等,就上图而言,以下数据必不可少:总数(2000年3562.6、2001年3476.0),总变化(2.4),极值(2000年最大1299.9,最小71.2;2001年最大1135.8,最小70.9;变化增长最多21.8,减少最多12.6),一共9个数据可视为必要数据,在文章中必须要提及,至于其他数据就可写可不写了。
 再则,整理写作思路,也就是写作顺序。作为总数、平均数或者对比数据,通常放在文章开头总起或者结尾总结,所以这些数据可以先不考虑。剩余的数据,则只有两种写作顺序,横着写或者竖着写,肯定不可能斜线写的。在上图中,横着写,就是对比相同地区在2000年和2001年不同年份之间的数据,其实也就是最后一列变化情况比例或者说趋势;竖着写,就是对比不同地区在2000年或2001年同一年份中的数据。此图中由于既出现了类别(地区),又出现了时间,所以既要横着写,也要竖着写。若是只有类别比较或者只有时间比较,那么横写竖写选其一即可。
 最后,就是落笔成文了,运用平时积累和归纳的词汇句型以及连接手段,把必要数据和关系对比,遵循刚才整理清楚的写作思路,有机地串连起来,形成文字即可。时间允许的话,还可以进行快速的检查,看看有无数据遗漏、时态疏忽、单词误拼等小问题。

线形图作文
Line graphs are more popular than all other graphs combined because their visual characteristics reveal data trends clearly and these graphs are easy to create. Line graphs, especially useful in the fields of statistics and science, are one of the most common tools used to present data.
A line graph is a visual comparison of how two variables—shown on the x- and y-axes—are related or vary with each other. It shows related information by drawing a continuous line between all the points on a grid. For information on the shapes of line graphs, see the Organizing data chapter.
Line graphs compare two variables: one is plotted along the x-axis (horizontal) and the other along the y-axis (vertical). The y-axis in a line graph usually indicates quantity (e.g., dollars, litres) or percentage, while the horizontal x-axis often measures units of time. As a result, the line graph is often viewed as a time series graph. For example, if you wanted to graph the height of a baseball pitch over time, you could measure the time variable along the x-axis, and the height along the y-axis.
Although they do not present specific data as well as tables do, line graphs are able to show relationships more clearly than tables do. Line graphs can also depict multiple series which are usually the best candidate for time series data and frequency distribution.
Bar and column graphs and line graphs share a similar purpose. The column graph, however, reveals a change in magnitude, whereas the line graph is used to show a change in direction.
In summary, line graphs show specific values of data well reveal trends and relationships between data
compare trends in different groups of a variable
Graphs can give a distorted image of the data. If inconsistent scales on the axes of a line graph force data to appear in a certain way, then a graph can even reveal a trend that is entirely different from the one intended. This means that the intervals between adjacent points along the axis may be dissimilar, or that the same data charted in two graphs using different scales will appear different.
Example 1 – Plotting a trend over time
Figure 1 shows one obvious trend, the fluctuation in the labour force from January to July. The number of students at Andrew's high school who are members of the labour force is scaled using intervals on the y-axis, while the time variable is plotted on the x-axis.
The number of students participating in the labour force was 252 in January, 252 in February, 255 in March, 256 in April, 282 in May, 290 in June and 319 in July. When examined further, the graph indicates that the labour force participation of these students was at a plateau for the first four months covered by the graph (January to April), and for the next three months (May to July) the number increased steadily.
Figure 1. Labour force participation in Andrew's high school

Example 2 – Comparing two related variables
Figure 2 is a single line graph comparing two items; in this instance, time is not a factor. The graph compares the number of dollars donated by the age of the donors. According to the trend in the graph, the older the donor, the more money he or she donates. The 17-year-old donors donate, on average, $84. For the 19-year-olds, the average donation increased by $26 to make the average donation of that age group $110.
Figure 2. Average number of dollars donated at Evergreen High School, by age of donor

Example 3 – Using correct scale
When drawing a line, it is important that you use the correct scale. Otherwise, the line's shape can give readers the wrong impression about the data. Compare Figure 3 with Figure 4:
Figure 3. Number of guilty crime offenders, Grishamville

Figure 4. Number of guilty crime offenders, Grishamville

Using a scale of 350 to 430 (Figure 3) focuses on a small range of values. It does not accurately depict the trend in guilty crime offenders between January and May since it exaggerates that trend and does not relate it to the bigger picture. However, choosing a scale of 0 to 450 (Figure 4) better displays how small the decline in the number of guilty crime offenders really was.
Example 4 – Multiple line graphs
A multiple line graph can effectively compare similar items over the same period of time (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Cell phone use in Anytowne, 1996 to 2002

Figure 5 is an example of a very good graph. The message is clearly stated in the title, and each of the line graphs is properly labelled. It is easy to see from this graph that the total cell phone use has been rising steadily since 1996, except for a two-year period (1999 and 2000) where the numbers drop slightly. The pattern of use for women and men seems to be quite similar with very small discrepancies between them.
----Quoted from Statistic Canada

流程图作文
流程图和其他数据图最大的区别在于:流程图是纯文字的,以描述为主,属于说明文。相比之下,柱状图、饼状图、表格等数据图则需要对数据进行分析和比较。从这个角度来说,其实数据图更难。
写好流程图,需要注意以下五个方面:
一、时态相对单一,主要用一般现在时。
二、经常使用被动语态,显得比较客观和正式。
流程图写好的第二个关键是被动语态的使用。流程图表现的是客观的工作流程或事物发展的过程。因此,我们可以尽量避免用“We should/must/need to do sth.”的主动语态,改为“Sth. Should/must/needs to be done”这样的被动语态。被动语态和情态动词的恰当搭配,可以使文章显得更具有客观、和学术化色彩。
The production of cement starts in a mixer, where limestone gravel and sand are converted into a mixture, which is then fed into a crusher. Here the mixture is ground into cement powder, and then is passed through a rotating heater.
上文中用到了convert、feed、grind、pass这四个动词的过去分词构造了被动语态,使过程的描写显得非常专业。
三、找出流程图的始末点,并划分中间的步骤或阶段。
在流程图的引言段和结尾段写作中可以适当进行过程的阶段划分和总结,使文章的构思上一个层次,摆脱“流水账”的俗套。
This diagram illustrates the recycling process of glass bottles. The whole process is a cycle which can be divided into three main stages.
In summary, plants, humans and animals provide services for each other. Humans and animals need the oxygen that plants produce in order to stay alive. When humans and animals breathe out, they provide the carbon dioxide that plants need in order to survive.
四、掌握表示“顺序”的连接词(Sequencing Words),用来说明过程的各个步骤和先后顺序。
重点掌握以下几个词。例如,表示过程用"process" 或"procedure",过程的各个阶段和步骤可以用"stage"或"step"来描述。在谈到第一个步骤时可以用连接词"At first"、"To begin with"、"In the first stage"等引出。在进入中间的步骤时可以用"Then"、"Next"、"After that"或"The second stage"等,最后一个步骤可以用"Finally"、"Lastly"或"The final stage"。当然,如果有一些平行的步骤也可以用"At the same time"、"Meanwhile"等来引出。
以上这些词如果用的太频繁也会使文章显得较为单调,我们可以使用从句的方法使各个步骤的描写自然地衔接在一句话中。例如
When the cleaning is done, the bottles are conveyed to a glass factory where they are cut into glass pieces which are then poured into a furnace.
上面的句子用了when/where/which三个连词,就把玻璃瓶回收的三个步骤”cleaning- cutting –heating巧妙地连接在了一起。
五、在流程图中,有时不可避免的会出现一些比较专业的概念,考场上一时想不出对应的英文,这时候要善于利用已知的简单词汇,试着把这些“专业”的概念用简单的方式表达出来。例如,不知道如何表达“房间通风”(ventilation)这个概念,我们可以说“air moving through the house”来说明,不知道如何说“斧头”和“锯子”(axe and saw)我们就用“special tools”来绕过,虽然不是描述得很精确,但总比不写或写错了要好。


雅思G类小作文写作要点(附范文)

邀请信
邀请信是写信人对收信人的一种盛情要约,在IELS也是比较常见的题型。
    内容要点
表明与收信人的相关性,说明写信意图;
具体交代情景包括邀请对方干什么、什么时候、在哪里;
期待对方答复。
    注意事项
虽然邀请信是写给朋友的,但仍要采用半正式文体;
可以夹杂口语化的成分,但礼貌原则都很重要。
    邀请信范文
    Dear John,
    I am very glad to know that you’re to take part in an international conference in Kunming. I sincerely ask you to come to Beijing to join us after the conference.
    I have talked about you to my patents and they also want to see you. We have recently moved into a big flat with four bedrooms which is well decorated. You can stay with us when you are in Beijing. My parents are both retired. In case I don’t have time to take you out to the scenic spots here, they are happy to be your guide. My father has moderate English knowledge, so he is capable of communication with you. The Forbidden City, the Heavenly Temple and the Great Wall are the places you ought to see.
    Before you come, please give us a call. Our telephone number remains unchanged, but I think I’d better tell you once more. It is 010-88886666. I will pick you up at the airport.
    Please do come. We look forward to your early arrival.
    Yours sincerely,
    Luis Li                                (178 words)
邀请信开头常用句式
        * I would like to see your presence at…
        * I wonder if you could come…
        * I would like you to come…
        * I thought you would like to…
        * I am writing to invite you to…
        * How would you like to join us in…?
        * Would you please drop me a line to let me know if you can come?
邀请信结尾常用句式
        * I really hope you can make it.
        * I would like to meet you there and please let me know your decision.
        * My family and I would feel honored if you could come.
        * We would be looking forward to your participation in the party.
邀请信常用词汇
    Occasion               decision                 honored            appointment
    Participation          presence                 party              share

寻找失物信
寻找失物信的目的是要收信人帮助寻找失物并将其归还失主。
    内容要点
表明与收信人的相关性,说明写信意图;
说明失物的详细内容以及他们的重要性;
说明如找到失物如何将其返还失主,并对收信表示感谢。
    注意事项
因为要麻烦收信人,所以在首段要表示必要的人歉意;
标度诚恳,表示感激;
失物内容要介绍清楚。
    寻找失物信- 范文
    Dear Mr. and Mrs. Hooper,
    I hope you are all well. The flight home seemed very long bout my family all came to meet me at the airport, which was fantastic. Thank you so much for having me – I enjoyed my time with you very much. I have a favor to ask. When I got home. I realized that I had left a small black handbag in my bedroom. You may recall that I bought myself a new bag while I was Sydney and I'm pretty sure I put the old one under the bed.
    I don't really need the bag but some of the things inside are of sentimental value and I would be very grateful if you could send them to me. There is a red address book, a small leather wallet with some photos and a silver necklace. None of the other things are important so please don’t worry about them. Could you please let me know row much the postage is and I will send you the money to cover the cost.
    Looking forward to hearing from you soon. Thank you once again for your help. Love to all the family.
    Maria
    寻找失物信开头常用句子
        * I am writing this letter to report the loss of my…when I …
        * I am writing this letter to see if it is possible for me to have my camera back.
        * I am sorry to disturb you, but I have to…
        * I am writing this letter to report the loss of my…when I …
        * I am writing this letter to request your assistance in finding my…whichi have lost during the stay with you hotel.
        * I hope it will not be too much trouble for you to help me finding my suitcase which I have lost due to carelessness.
    寻找失物信结尾常用句式
        * I would really appreciate it if you could…
        * I would be grateful if you could…
        * I also suggest that the lost bag be sent to…if possible.
        * Thanks for your help.
        * I am looking forward to your reply.
    寻找失物信常用词汇
    appreciate          disturb                find                  lose
    grateful            appreciate             carelessness          negligence
    suggest             suitcase               assistance

推荐信
推荐信是向收信人推荐第三人做某件事情。
    内容要点
表明写信意图。包括向收信人简要介绍自己的背景,自己与被推荐人的关系,推荐他/她做什么;
说明推荐原因,介绍被推荐人的相关工作经历或个性特点;
表示感谢和期待;
希望给予考虑,安排面试。
    注意事项
注意突出与被推荐人的相关性;
诚恳的表示感谢和期待;
推荐内容要具体、实事求是,不过分吹嘘,但也不过分自谦。
 
    推荐信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    This letter is in reference to SABIR PATEL. SABIR worked for me in the IT Department at DFH for 4 years. He began here as SE, and after several promotions, ended his service as END POSITON.
    During SABIR's service with us I spent considerable time with him, very goal oriented, SABIR was always punctual. He was dedicated to his work and the job at hand.
    SABIR demonstrated from early in his tenure that he understood what business is all about. He was well organized. He was quite aware of the bottom line, and had a knack for recognizing and eliminating waste. I suppose doing well in business is easy if you are, as he was, efficient by nature.
    I would like to be very clear about why SABIR is no longer with us. SABIR is available for new challenges only because of his desire to learn and grow further. We would have loved to see him stay, but certainly understand his need to advance beyond the positions we have available.
    In closing, let me say I have no hesitation in recommending SABIR PATEL for any position pertaining to computer science. I feel confident he would be an asset to your organization.
      Sincerely yours,

    推荐信- 开头常用句式
        * I am writing to you to recommend…
        * I would like to present…. For your consideration in your search for a qualified manager.
        * With reference to your requirements, I shall, without reservation, recommend….as an ideal candidate.
    推荐信- 结尾常用句式
        * Before concluding the letter, I would again apply myself to convincing you that…
        * I am wring to stand by Mr. …for…
        * I would like to lend my support to … for… his
        * Therefore, I don’s hesitate to recommend…as the right person for your consideration.
        * Any favorable consideration to this letter would be considered a personal favor.
          I would like to thank you for your attention to this letter and restate my support to Mr…
    推荐信- 常用词汇
    consideration            credit              career               employ
    cooperate                enterprise          desirous             enclose
    reservation              inform              experience           graduate
    handle                   PhD degree          Master's degree      obtain
    offer one's service      convince             position            post graduate
    qualify                  senior clerk        responsible          scholarship
    render one's service     trust            undergraduate           have a good command of
    personality              character           diligent             recommend

申请信
申请信一般包括求职或申请奖学金。是对收信人就某一工作招聘或奖学金提出申请,说明自己符合条件。
    内容要点
对某一职位或奖学金提出申请;
说明自己适合的理由;
如果是求职信,在必要时说明为何离开原工作单位;
希望给予考虑安排面谈。
    注意事项
行文简练,言简意赅,开门见山;
态度诚恳、礼貌,不过分讨好对方,不自我吹嘘,也不过于自谦;
自我介绍明确、具体、实事求是。
    申请信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I am writing this letter to apply for the position of student assistant that I saw advertised on your website. I am interested in working in the teachers' resource library, or in the accommodation department.
    I have recently graduated from the WSB Business School in Warsaw and received high grades in both my English and Business Courses. In addition, we had to use all of the Microsoft Office programs in the preparation of our finished assignments, so I am able to do most things with computers.
    Since I was 15 years old I have helped my father to run his small import-export business. I have been involved in helping a variety of clients and also the general administration of the business. In the past 2 years I have worked in the WSB library, helping teachers and students to find and use the resources there. This experience as give me the ability to deal with the needs of all types of people.
    I have an outgoing, diligent personality and find that I enjoy the challenges of working in busy environments. In addition, my students and experience have taught me to be accurate and efficient in organising my work so I would be a valuable addition to your school.
    I look forward to hearing from you.
    Yours faithfully,                    

    求职信常用的句子
        * I am writing to you in replay to your advertising in “Daily Telegraph” of April 2003 concerning the Vice-President position of you company.
        * Please accept this letter as application for the Senior Marketing Manager position currently advertised in the “Daily Telegraph” of April 2003.
        * I would like to apply for the Head of the Financial Department position advertised in The Russian Financial News of July 1, 2003.
        * I am responding to your advertisement in       for a     position…
        * I wish to apply for the job for … which was advertised in today’s “Daily Telegraph”.
        * With reference to your advertisement in the ‘Guardian ’ of January 5th, I should like to apply for the position of ….
        * I met Mr. Ivanov, Senior Vice-President of your company at the last meeting in Moscow and he strongly recommended that I send you a copy of my resume.
        * Five years experience in every aspect of the immobility market in Moscow and Russia.
        * I offer more than ten years of business experience in marketing and sales of food…
        * As you will see from my enclosed CV, I have four years’ experience in hotels and catering.
        * At present I am employed as a … by the local Tourist Office, a position I have held for three years.
        * In the course of my present job, I have been responsible for the planning and organization of…
        * My duties have included secretarial work as well as…
        * I graduated in Business Administration from Dundee University in 1996.
        * I was employed the Lycee Paul Bert, where I obtained the baccalauriat in 1995.
        * During my apprenticeship I obtained practical training in all aspects of the catering trade.
        * I am used to working under pressure/working to a deadline/working as part of a team.
        * I am familiar with Word for Windows/recent/developments in the industry…
        * I also have some knowledge of accountancy, having kept the books for my father’s business..
        * I believe the post you offer will give me the opportunity to…
        * I feel that my present position offers little prospect of promotion.
        * I am especially keen to work in an organization such as yours which has a reputation for…
        * I am interested in an accounting manager position within your company where my abilities and qualifications can be fully applied for our mutual benefits.
        * I welcome an opportunity to meet with you and to discuss my abilities and qualification.
        * I look forward to schedule an interview at your earliest convenience to learn more about your corporation and how I could contribute to its continued success.
        * I would welcome the opportunity to discuss my credentials in a personal interview.
        * Thank you for your time and consideration.
        * Thank you for your time.
    求职信常用词汇
    apply                credit               commencing salary      commission
    cooperate            enterprise           desirous               employ
    enclose              inform               experience             graduate
    handle               Ph. D.'s degree      Master's degree        obtain
    offer one's service  recommend            position               post graduate
    qualify              senior clerk         responsible            scholarship
    render one's service trust                undergraduate          have a good command of
    personality          character            diligent
    求职信- 范文
    Dear Prof. David,
    I am writing to submit my application for the Ph. D. scholarship in business management.
    I graduated in 1990 with a degree in International Finance and spent the first five years of my career working for the local government in the Environmental Planning Department. In 1994 I returned to university and for an MBA in business management.
    I completed my dissertation on industrial modernization, and published a dozen of articles in the “The Science” and “The Journal of Business Management”. I have also traveled widely throughout Europe and Asia as a guest lecturer in many prestigious a Ph. D. would put me in a strong position to assist in the continued modernization of commercial in China.
    I look forward to hearing from you soon.
    Sincerely yours,
    Mary Li

建议信
建议信是对收信人就某一问题提出建议和忠告。建议信有可能写给某个组织或机构,就改进其服务质量提出建议或忠告:也可能是写给个人,就其人生的某个重大决定提出自己的建议。
    内容要点
写信的目的以及所谈事情的简介,包括背景、现状、存在的问题和可能的发展;
提出建议的原因;
建议的内容;
客气话或感谢
    注意事项
语气要诚恳,有礼貌;
建议内容要具体;
可提供不止一个解决方案供选择或一个问题的不同方面提出建议。
    建议信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    As someone who has travelled throughout Asia on business and holiday I would like to give my opinion on its environmental impact. Having visited Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia I understand that tourism can bring money to developing countries. However, this money often goes into the pockets of foreign investors, and only rarely benefits local people. Multinational hotel chains also have little regard for the surrounding wildlife when they build new resorts. This can cause many problems.
    In view of these facts we, as tourists, can directly affect these countries in a positive way if we are thoughtful. When we visit these countries we can visit restaurants, bars and even hotels that are owned by local people. In addition, we can refuse to give Iuxury resorts our patronage and therefore prevent them from becoming even larger. Most importantly we should check that any tours or excursions we take have minimal effect on the natural surroundings. Finally, we can even attempt to change the behaviour of other tourists by sharing our opinions.
    If we follow these simple steps we can be sure that our pleasure is not causing any harm to people or places that we visit.
      Sincerely yours                                

    建议信- 开头段常用句子
        * I am writing to express my views concerning…
        * I would like to suggest that…
        * I am writing in reply to …
        * I am writing with my suggestion about…
        * May I suggest that…
        * In my opinion, I would say…
    建议信- 结尾段常用句子
        * I would be more happy to see improvements in this regard.
        * I would be ready to discuss this matter to further details.
        * I trust you will take my suggestion into account.
        * I hope you will find these suggestions/proposals/recommendations are helpful/practical/useful/beneficial.
    建议信常用词汇
    arrange              concern                    condition
    consider             for the sake of            improve
    in my opinion        matter                     out of the question
    prevent              propose                    regard
    schedule             suggest                    unsatisfactory

感谢信
感谢信是对收信人的某一行为表示感谢。
    内容提要:
开头说明写信的目的,感谢谁;
简明扼要的介绍要感谢的人和事,写明时间、地点、人物、过程;
提出你所要感谢的理由。
    注意事项:
叙述过程要具体;
不牵扯无关情节;
结尾用热情的话。
    感谢信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I am writing this letter to extend my sincere thanks to Mr. Bonter, the accountant of your company.
    I am a commuter and every day I take bus Route 183 , to the workplace. Last Wednesday morning when the bus almost reached the stop where I was to get off, I unexpectedly felt dizzy and then I lost my consciousness and fell to the ground. When I was awakened, I found myself in the City Hospital attended by my wife. The physician told me it was Mr. Bonter who had sent me to the hospital and informed my wife of my misfortune. Mr. Bonter happened to be on the same bus, but I have never met him.
    My wife and I were very much grateful to Mr. Bonter for his kindness. Please forward my heartfeltness to him. We feel very much proud of your company for having such a helpful employee. If Mr. Bonter was late for work that day, I’d like to compensate you for the loss thus incurred.
    I do hope that your company would reward Mr. Bonter for his selfless and noble deeds.
    Yours sincerely,
    Tarry Chan

    感谢信- 开头段常用句子
        * I am writing this letter to thank you for…
        * I am writing to show my sincere appreciation for…
        * I would like to convey in this letter my heartfelt thanks to you for…
        * I feel deeply indebted to you and I really don’t know how to thank you enough for your help.
        * I am writing these few lines to express my sincere thanks, not only to yourself but to …
        * This letter is to express my thanks and appreciation for…
    感谢信- 结尾段常用句子
        * I hope you will give me the chance to return your kindness.
        * Please accept my gratitude, now and always.
        * I must thank you again for your generous help.
        * My true gratitude is beyond the words' description.
        * I am most grateful for your selfless donation.
    感谢信- 常用词汇
    appreciate             beyond words            convey             express
    cordial                courtesy                generosity         grateful
    gratitude&nb, sp;             hospitality             render             satisfy
    moved                  admire                  hospitable         timely
    friendly               Pay tribute to          volunteer          heartfelt

道歉信
道歉信的目的是向收信人表示歉意,请求对方对自己的某种过失表示谅解。
    内容要点
对所发生的事情表示歉意;
解释产生错误的原因;
主动说明将如何补救,保证不再发生类似错误;
可提供联系方法。
    注意事项
要直截了当;
态度要诚恳,解释原因实事求是;
补救措施合理。
    道歉信- 范文
    Dear Sir:
     I am writing to you because I am unable to pay next month’s rent which is due on Saturday. Unfortunately, the other day I lost may wallet, and there was a large amount of money inside.
    I have, therefore, had to write to my parents to ask them to send me some money urgently. As soon as it arrives, I will immediately notify you and arrange to pay by cash or cheque. I hope that this does not cause you too much inconvenience.
    There are also some problems with the flat that I wish to bring to your attention. First, the cold tap in the bathroom will not turn off properly, and the water is dripping constantly. This will need to be fixed quickly because it is wasting water. Second, one of the back rings on the top of the oven does not work at all.
    I’m sorry that I cannot pay the rent on time, and trust that you will understand.
    Yours sincerely,
    Dai Ling                               
    道歉信- 常用句子
        * I am writing to apologise for the things I said at our last meeting/losing my temper.
        * I would like to say how sorry I am about the trouble I have caused/that you were disturbed.
        * The reason I missed the meeting was that my car broke down.
        * Please let me know how much it cost and I will gladly replace it.
        * I assure you that this will never happen again.
        * I offended you quite unintentionally.
        * I apologize for……
        * Please accept my apologies.
        * Much to my regret, I cannot…
        * I regret to inform you of…
        * I know … but I’m afraid…
        * I make a second apology to you.
        * I cannot …because….
    道歉信- 常用词汇
    accident        admit            apologize          apology   
    arrange         arrangement      arrival            arrive
    ashamed         avoid            expected           correct
    do wrong        excuse           expected           fail
    forgive         misunderstand    neglect duties     offend
    pardon          redress errors   regret             reimburse  for a loss
    sorry           to see to it     unintentionally    wrong 

请求信
请求信的目的是对收信人提出请求,希望对方满足此要求。表明请求他人做某事的原因。
    内容要点
说明写信的意图,要提出什么样的请求。首段要礼貌规范
具体说明求亲的原因
    注意事项
主体要尽可能客观公正,合情合理
结尾表示希望对方回复,并提现礼貌原则
    请求信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I am writing to formally request to withdraw from two courses: introduction to Elementary Education (EDU601) and Teaching methods (EDU 609).
    The main reason for reducing my course load is that I am finding it extremely difficult to manage six courses. In the beginning of the term, I was perhaps overly optimistic about juggling both my full time studies and my part time job (20 hours/week). Because I really must work part time, I have no other choice but to summer semester, if they are available, so that I will be able to complete all the courses for the degree program by the following year.
    I would also like to request a tuition refund, and hope I am not too late to receive the full reimbursement. I am sorry for any inconveniences I have caused by this change in plans. This decision was not taken lightly, and I do appreciate the kind consideration you have shown to me.
    Thank you fro your attention to these requests. If you have any questions, please feel tree to contact me at 277-9144. I look forward to hearing from you soon.
    Your sincerely,
    请求信- 开头常见用句
          o I am writing to formally request to…
          o Would you be kind enough to…
          o I am writing to seek for your assistance in…
          o I would very much like to ask fro your permission with this letter so as to allow me…
    请求信- 结尾常见用句 
          o I look forward to hearing from you soon.
          o I shall remain grateful to you for the great help.
          o I do appreciate the favorable consideration you have shown to me.
          o I would like to thank you for your generous help in this matter.
    请求信- 常用词汇
    inquire about           seek           obtain          regarding,    concerning
    provide sb…with sth.   inform(of)     convenience     look forward to (doing) sth.
    prompt/immediate        ask into account of sth.       detailed
    essential/necessary     grateful/ obliged              appreciation

询问信
询问信的目的是寻求所需要的信息。在IELTS考试中出现的次数仅次于投诉信。
    内容要点
简单说明场景,表明写作意图,说明目的是要寻求什么样的信息
要注意礼貌原则,只能就收信人提供的信息进行询问,不要问不相关的信息
    注意事项
如果某个问题较为严重,可以在主体段落中单独占一个段落
在结尾段表明获取信息的急切心情,提供联系方法以便收信人与你联系,并且感激对方
    询问信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I write concerning the availability of student accommodation.
    I am an overseas student and will arrive at the university on the 5th October, I would like, as far as possible, to live on campus. However, I'm a mature female student and would prefer a quiet room away from younger students. I'd also prefer to share with other female students, preferably those who don't smoke, however, this is not a strict request.
    I shall be reading for my Ph.D. in Biological Science, and would like to be within easy walking distance of the laboratory if this is possible. Nevertheless, once again this is a preference rather than a requirement.
    I am due to arrive in London on the morning of the 5th October. However, this will be my first time to visit the UK. As a result, I will be grateful if you can also let me have directions to the university, along with train times, etc.
    I look forward to hearing from you soon.
    Yours sincerely,
    Lisa Chan
    询问信- 开头常见用句
          o I am writing to enquire about…
          o I would be grateful if you could send me full details of…
          o I wonder if you could…
          o I would like to receive information regarding…
          o I am writing to ask if you could possibly…
          o I would like to request materials for…
          o I would be most grateful if you could send information concerning/regarding…
          o I was interested in your advertisement in The Daily News and I would like to have further information about…
          o I look forward to hearing from you/receiving the information.
          o I am writing to you in the hope that I may obtain…
    询问信- 结尾常用句子
          o Thank you for your consideration.
          o I look forward to your immediate response.
          o I am expecting your early reply.
          o Your prompt attention to this letter would be highly appreciated.
          o I am looking forward to hearing from you.
    询问信- 常用词汇
    inquire                   seek             obtain           regarding, concerning
    provide sb. with sth.     Inform (of)      convenience      look forward to (doing) sth.
    prompt/immediate          take into account of sth.         detailed
    essential/necessary       grateful/obliged                  appreciation

投诉信
    内容要点:
所要投诉或抱怨的事情是什么
将时间,地点及事情的经过及问题所在说清楚
你对解决问题的建议
告知你的联系方法,如电话,传真,通讯地址等
    注意事项:
言语要平和,不要用太过激的词语
对解决问题的建议要合理
一封信只写一件事
事情的来龙去脉要写清楚
    投诉信- 范文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I am writing you to complain about stereo, which I bought in January. After only two days things started to go wrong.    The first problem was the CD drawer, which opened and closed too quickly. I nearly trapped my fingers in it. The next day I recorded a Don to a cassette. Everything worked, but the sound quality was every poor. On the following day, the CD Pause button stopped working.
    Naturally, I returned the stereo to you for repair. Your assistant said I would have to wait only a week. After two weeks, the necessary spare parts had still not arrived. Eventually, nine weeks later, I collected the stereo. The CD player worked properly, but there was no improvement in the recording quality.
    I am not satisfied with the equipment nor with the service I have received. I am therefore writing to ask for a full refund. I will return the stereo to your shop on Monday and I expect to receive a cheque for $250.
    Yours faithfully,

    5分作文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with my room-mate. As you know we share one room, I can not study in the room at all any more if I still stay there.
    She always has friend visiting and has parties in the room. They make lots of noise and switch on the radio very loudly, for me this environment is very difficult to study and I need a quiet room. Even borrows my things without asking, it is very impolite.
    I request you can give me a new room next term because I have been asked her has parties in other place many times they still have parties in the room. I really can not stay in the same room with her.
    I would be grateful if you could change me a single room.
    Your sincerely,

    7分作文
    Dear Sir or Madam,
    I am writing you to express my dissatisfaction with my roommate and request for another accommodation next term.
    My main problem is that I can not study in my room because my roommate always has friends visiting. He also has parties, which usually ends early in the morning, several times a week. Furthermore he often borrows my things without asking me.
    I cannot accept this situation any later, especially because I have very important exam next term and I really must study hard. This is why I would be very grateful if I could have another room next term. It would be most convenient for me not having to share my room with somebody else.
    I am looking forward to hear from you soon.
    Yours faithfully,
    投诉信- 常见用句
        * I am writing with regard/reference to/in connection with…
        * I am writing to express my concern/dissatisfaction about…
        * I would like to draw your attention to…
        * I am writing to you to complain about the service:
        * I am writing to you with reference to the above trip, which you organized.
        * I have received your invoice No 1234-BA for $3456 but noticed that a number of errors have been made.
        * Unfortunately, the reality was very different.
        * I regret to inform you that:
        * We regret to inform you that we were no at all satisfied with your service.
        * You can imagine my disappointment when I discovered:
        * You can imagine our feelings when we realized that this would mean:
        * I can suppose that the your partner in Santo Paulo…
        * I have tried to contact you by phone but could get anyone who knew anything about this matter.
        * We enclose a report on the damage form:
        * I contacted your account representative in Bank, but unfortunately without any success.
        * We must insist on receiving our prior payment:
        * I should therefore like to have my money refunded.
        * Therefore I look forward to hearing your comments.
        * We would be interested to know if you can offer an explanation for this poor quality of your service.
        * We will keep the goods until:
        * Unless you can fulfill our orders efficiently in the future, we will have to consider other sources of supply.
        * I look forward to hearing from you.
    投诉信常用词汇
    annoy              apologize              complain                defect
    disappoint         dissatisfy             embarrass               inconvenience
    inform…of…       refund                 resolve rude            unreasonable

 


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