雅思写作概述(下)

雅思大作文写作技巧(A、G类)

雅思大作文写作步骤指导
雅思写作部分有2篇作文,要求考生在一小时内完成至少400字的写作任务。由于时间比较短,不少考生因未能合理安排时间,结果没有有效完成任务要求或是未能充分展现自己的英语写作水平。
写作部分两篇文章的字数要求是不一样的。大作文必须完成250字以上写作任务,而小作文150字以上。根据这一指令,从机械地写字速度来看,考生较为合理的时间分配为大作文40分钟,小作文20分钟。另外,大作文占写作总值的60%,小作文为40%,从这分值的权重来看,时间上2:1的分配也是相当合理的。
所以,要想成功完成大作文任务一定要把时间控制在40分钟左右,前后不超出5分钟。
那么如何充分利用这40分钟, 完成一篇基本令人满意的文章呢?
步骤一:审题(<3 分钟)
审题是有效完成任务的第一步,也是最关键的一步。从评分标准看,审题的正确与否与"Task Response"有着直接的联系。而在当前模板泛滥,文章千篇一律的大环境下,有效审题是突破六分的一条准绳。不少考生在审题时,要么蜻蜓点水、草草一读,要么只关注题目中词的同义转换。如此读题,都有可能对之后的文章撰写方向造成偏差。而有效的读题方法应为:
通读题目,了解大意。
细读题目,分析句子间的逻辑关系。
再读题目,辨别关键词,区分主题词和限定词,推测考官的出题意图。

由于大部分考生只作到了读题的第一步,所以出现离题或部分离题的可能性很大。现以2008年11月15日的考题为例:
There are more workers to work from home and more students to study from home. This is because the computer technology is more and more easily accessible and cheaper. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?(题目为考生回忆,与原题可能有少许出入)
通读题目,了解大意。
当前有越来越多的工人在家里工作,有越来越多的学生在家里学习。这是因为电脑技术越来越容易获得,也越来越便宜了。你认为这是个正面的还是负面的发展趋势?
备注:题中的accessible有不少考生不理解,对审题的准确性会造成一定影响。
细读题目,分析句子间的逻辑关系。
要把握题目中的句子间逻辑关系,关键是能读懂代词"this"; "it"的具体指代。
"this"是指第一句话。
"it"可理解为前两句所呈现的这一现象。为了使文章写作方向更为明确,这里可把it 概括为:the wider usage of computer technology in working or studying from home
再读题目,辨别关键词,区分主题词和限定词,推测考官的出题意图。
主题词:Computer technology in working or studying from home
限定词:positive or negative
不容忽视的词:easily accessible and cheaper
题目信息解构:
      (topic)                                        positive(benefits)
Computer technology in working or studying from home
            (causes)                                Negative (drawbacks)
Easily accessible and cheaper
对题目做出如上分析,确保撰写的文章能包含以上的信息,审题这关绝对能过。
以上用时不超过3分钟。

步骤二:列大纲(<3分钟)
根据以上的题目解构信息,寻找关键词的下义词和衍生词,根据已有素材确定写作框架。
如:
Computer technology:on-line, PC, laptop, broadband
Working from home: Fashion designer; freelancer; translator; journalist; writer; music composer, artists
Studying from home: on-line course, the disable who are difficult to move; course in the foreign country
Cheaper: on-line IELTS course --several hundred RMB
        Class IELTS course -- several thousand RMB
Easily accessible : in city-- at least one PC every house
                      Broadband: almost every house; school
                      Net bar: almost every neighborhood
Outline:
Introduction:
Computer technology in home-study and home- work      (topic)
Positive development                                (opinion)
Body:
Benefits of studying from home:
Cheaper--- IELTS course (on-line /class)
Freer--- white collar for further education in free time
Benefits of working from home:
Artists(music composer/fashion designer)---- more productive
Freelancer( translator/journalists)---- more working opportunity
Drawbacks:
Lack self-control /independence( line-addicts)
Conclusion: inevitable trend( with self-discipline)
备注:在实战考试中无需把大纲写得如此详细,但胸有成竹一定会使之后文章的写作如鱼得水。

步骤三:文章撰写(30-35分钟)
一般文章为4-5段,平均每段用时5-10分钟
备注:大作文写作一定要写结论段,以体现文章的完整性。

步骤四:检查(1-2分钟)
此时,不宜做大的修改,把笔误的部分改掉即可。
在本篇论文中,笔者花了较多的篇幅来论述审题和列大纲,旨在引起读者对这两部分的足够重视。

议论文四种类型与结尾模版
针对雅思议论文写作中的辩论式话题,在教学中我们通常会向学生介绍两种安排结构的方式,即单边支持和双边讨论。所谓单边支持,顾名思义就是文章的辩论从一边展开,作者的观点和理由呈现“一边倒”的形式;而双边讨论型文章的特点则是文章针对题目所提出的话题,从正反(即支持和反对)两个方面展开辩论。单边支持和双边讨论结构的文章有着各自的特点和谋篇布局的套路,不同的题目可能适合不同类型的结构。但无论是用什么样的结构,作为议论文写作,论点、论据和论证都是必不可少的,特别是论点,没有论点或论点不清的文章是绝不可能拿高分的。然而在双边讨论型文章教学中,经常会发现学生对于如何提出观点感到非常迷惑。本文将从如何提出“折衷观点”和“折衷方案”这个角度对于双边讨论型文章的观点设计进行简单分析。
一、何为“折衷观点”和“折衷方案”
      很多雅思写作考题的提问方式都是“Do you agree or disagree?”或者“To what extent do you agree or disagree?”。很多刚刚接触雅思考试的学生甚至是老师认为对于这种提问方式无非就是yes或no两种答案,所以文章的观点也就只能是同意或者不同意了。其实,对于这类提问,也可以采用“折衷”的观点,即“partly agree,partly disagree”(部分同意,部分不同意)。但是前提是一定要在文章中从支持和反对的两方面都阐述一些理由,而且最好再提出一种“折衷”方案。例如,考题问“现在很多人用动物做试验,你同意吗?”,考生可以在文中分别讨论支持和反对动物试验的理由,最后提出动物试验既有好处也有坏处,这就是一种“折衷”观点。除此之外,作者还提出了是否能用动物来做试验主要是取决于试验是否能给人类生活带来显著的改善(比如帮助人类发明治疗Aids的药物),这就属于“折衷”方案。

二、“折衷观点”和“折衷方案”的几种形式
那么如何提出“折衷观点”呢?“折衷方案”又有哪几种形式呢?下面将对常见的几种安排折衷观点和折衷方案的形式,结合相应的考题进行总结。
1)兴利除弊
“兴利除弊”应该是一种比较简单的折衷方案,在优缺点类文章中特别常用。即在分析完考题所涉及事物的优缺点之后,在结尾段提出“优缺点都有,我们要兴利除弊”这样的折衷方案。例如以下考题:The advantages brought by the spread of English as a “global language” will outweigh the disadvantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this view?
在讨论完英语作为全球性语言的利与弊之后,结尾段可以这样提出折衷观点:
To sum up, it is difficult to tell whether or not the advantages outweigh the disadvantages regarding the spread of English as a global language. What we may have to consider is how to accept this trend as positive while at the same time staying away from its drawbacks.
2)平衡发展
很多考题需要考生讨论两种观点,通常会有“discuss both views and give your own opinion”这样的提问要求。很多情况下,文中说到的两种观点表面上看来是完全相反,但其实并不矛盾,可以用“平衡发展”的思路来提出观点。例如考题:Some people think that cultural traditions may be destroyed when they are used as money-making attractions aimed at tourists. Others believe it is the only way to save these traditions. Discuss on both sides and give your opinion.
在讨论完发展旅游的必要性和保护文化传统的重要性之后,结尾段可以这样提出折衷方案:
We should find the right balance between tourism development and cultural protection and I believe the government has a very important role to play here. In my own country, for example, many tourist cities have made effective development plans to successfully attract large numbers of visitors while still preserving their distinct cultural traditions.
3)列出条件
有时在讨论完A和B两种观点以后,可以提出类似于“同意A还是B要取决于……”这样的折衷观点,前文讲到的动物试验是否可以进行取决于试验的性质就是属于这样的方案。再比如下面这个例子:Some people think that the animals should be treated as pets; others think that animals are sources of food and clothing. What is your opinion?
在讨论完动物当宠物养的理由和动物当食物吃的理由之后,结尾段可以这样提出观点:
From my point of view, there is no absolute answer as to whether animals should be treated like pets or as sources of food and clothes. It largely depends on what kinds of animals they are. But what remains undoubted is that we should treat animals with a humane attitude and bear in mind that they are important in preserving nature’s ecological equilibrium.  
4)解决方法
很多双边讨论型文章中所讨论的两种观点其实是可以通过某种方案来“化解矛盾”的,例如这道考题:In many countries, good schools and medical facilities are available only in cities. Some people think new teachers and doctors should wok in rural areas for a few years, but others think everyone should be free to choose where they work. Discuss and give your own opinion.
在讨论完“支边”的利(缩小城乡差距)与弊(年轻人丧失自由)之后,我们可以提出这样一种解决方案:
The best solution, therefore, is not to order, but to encourage. We should instill a sense of responsibility in young people and give more incentives to those who are willing to work in difficult areas, so that we can address the problem of urban-rural disparity while respecting whatever decisions new teachers or doctors have made.

雅思议论文论证方法
雅思写作部分要求考生在一小时内完成两篇文章,一是150单词以上的图表说明文,二是250单词以上的议论文。说到雅思议论文,它的考查点可以从三个方面进行概括,即结构、内容、语言。本文将就其中内容方面进行探讨。雅思写作通常都围绕着几大类话题展开,如2009年到现在较常出现的教育类、科技类、媒体类等,所以考生要在考试前做好论据扩展的准备,争取每个话题都练习几个常考题目。
雅思议论文,不管是双边论证还是单边论证,论据的扩展是非常重要的,只有合理逻辑的对一个理由进行论证,才能说服考官相信你的论证是有理的。而合理的扩展有了素材后还需要一些方法的补充。常见的方法有解释说明(explanation)、举例子(exemplification)、列数据(raising figures)、对比对照(contrast & comparison)、让步(making concession)、引用(quotation)等。接下来,我们先来熟悉一下前两种方法的具体使用。
 1、 解释说明(explanation)
句型:
This is to say, …
To be more precise,…
By this I mean,…
中国学生思维方式有个最大的特点就是拐弯抹角,不会开门见山,这往往与西方人的思维方式有着巨大的区别,西方人通常习惯一针见血,而不是含蓄的说话。这就导致很多考生在论证过程中用讲道理的论证方法时容易出现离题偏题的现象,从而降低考分。比如,一次课上,笔者请一位学生来分析一下“the reason why it is difficult for university students to find a job after graduation”,学生的答案为“the increasing world population”,考生给出答案后进行了分析,他认为人口多了,意味着大学生人数增多,那就是说大四学生变多了,找工作竞争激烈了,所以他们找工作困难了,这样就将看上去风马牛不相及的两个东西转了好几个圈终于联系在一起。中国学生喜欢去研究一个问题的根本原因,但事实上,这个原因与题目根本没联系,就可以被判定为离题,所以还不如直接说“the increasingly fierce competition”,更有说服力。根据这一特色,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师建议考生在讲道理的时候只围绕topic sentence进行解释说明,这样就不会出现离题的现象了。我们看下面一个topic sentence,通过explanation来进行扩展。
E.g. The retired people tend to offer service for the benefits of the family and the community.
读完这个句子,我们可能对其中the benefits of the family and the community感到疑惑,到底是什么利益,提供什么服务。
This is to say, the elderly always spend their time in taking care of the family and doing household chores for the family as well as organizing charitable activities for the community.
这样就能很好的对上述句子进行解释说明了。
 2、 举例子(exemplification)
句型:
For example, for instance, to illustrate, …
Take… as example, …
举例子也是中国考生较常用的论证方法,只是在使用的过程中往往也会出现一些不符合西方思维的问题。既是举例子,顾名思义,我们要列举一个具体的例子,比如某某人,或某事件而不是在for example后面还出现some people,这根本就不能算是个具体的例子。笔者在上课时请一位学生来举例论证“the students in high school suffer from increasing pressure”学生的例子是(中文):某年某月某日,我经过我家邻居的门前,刚好看到他们家女儿因为压力过大而跳楼自杀了。这个例子有三个地方不合理,一是某年某月某日,过于具体,不可信;二是我亲眼看到她跳楼自杀,就算是真的也不可信,最好说是报纸或新闻中读到;三是压力过大,难道她在跳楼前还大喊一声“我压力太大了”告知大家跳楼的原因吗?显然又是不合理的。所以上述三个方面的问题请考生引起重视。接着我们也通过一个练习来对topic sentence进行举例的扩展。
E.g. Most parents tend to overuse punishment in their education of the kids.
看到这样一个句子,我们脑中第一步要想到一个具体的事件,再想具体的人,就可以得出下面的例子。
For example, only because of the bad performance in primary school, the child of my neighbour was inflicted corporal punishment. In this case, it does nothing but harm to the child’s physical and mental development.
从例子中得出一个结论,这样使得论证过程更加有说服力。
3、 列数据(raising figures)
句型:
As is reported/ investigated/ researched, …
It is reported that …
A recent research conducted by …Bureau reveals that…
列数据的论证方法较讲道理更有说服力,我们要在平时生活中多做积累才能应付列举考试中出现的各个话题的一些相关数字。雅思考试中的数据其实可以分成两大类,一类是有科学依据的,明确记载的数据,如一些新闻事件,四川地震、公交车自燃等的死亡或受伤人数,这些都是可查询的,如若考生对这些数据没有切实的把握就不需列举。另一类是指一些调查报告的数据,如大学生平均一天花多少时间自习,初中生平均一天花多少时间玩电脑游戏等,这类数据无据可依,考生完全可以自己根据论证内容给出数据,但一定要符合逻辑。我们通过一例来使用列数据的论证方法:
Eg. The retired people tend to offer service for the benefits of the family and the community.
要对这样一个topic sentence做列数据的扩展,我们首先要找到可列数据的点,此题有两处,一是退休老人的年龄,二是所花时间。结合上述句型,得出论证过程如下:
As is reported, the average time that the retired within the age group above 65 spend on the family and the community is at its length of about 5 hours per day.
4、 比较(contrast & comparison)
考生可以拿相同或相反的事物做比较,相同关系叫对照(comparison),相反关系叫对比(contrast)。此类论证我们重点掌握一些对比对照关系的连词:
In contrast, by contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas
Likewise, similarly
5、 引用(quotation)
在写作论证的过程中,表达一些观点的时候,如果能拿名人名言来进行论证则更有说服力,说明某位名人的观点和你的观点是达成一致,形成共鸣的。但引用要求考生要有相当大的积累,由于备考时间紧迫,此类论证可以少用。此外,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家提醒考生要紧记,引用名人名言就意味着引用别人的观点,所以只要引两到三句起到论证自己观点的作用的话就可以了,点到为止,而不是中文写作中,引用越多越好。
6、 让步(making concession)
让步的论证是中国考生较陌生的一个概念,其实在学状语从句时,我们就学过让步的关系,先退一步承认一个与自己观点相反的事实,再转折给出自己的观点,否定前者。句型如下:
Although/ though/ in spite of the fact that …
As is granted/ Admittedly, …
Opponents would argue that …
举个简单的例子,一个男生向女生告白,被女生拒绝,她就会委婉的用让步的论证来表达自己的想法,她会先承认男生的一些优点,再转折说自己并喜欢他。这样既能表达自己的观点,又不至于伤害对方。让步这种方法的优点为能较全面的看待一个问题,而且反驳更能有的放矢。具体例子如下:
Eg. People don not believe that saving money is a good idea in modern society.
这个Topic sentence的观点很明确,存钱在当代社会不是好主意,显然,用让步论证的话,我们要先承认存钱的优点,再根据所列有点进行反驳。
As is granted, saving money offers people a sense of security in case of emergency. However, people tend to believe that wise investment can get more profits.

雅思大作文框架(argumentation)
一、1:2(中间对方观点一段,自己的两段)共五段
    * 第一段
     第一句:点题—定义题目中的关键词,要想让考官看不出模板的痕迹,这一点尤为重要,可以用:
    * 赞扬的口吻
            例如:wearing uniforms has become an effective way to solve school problems
         可选用以下一些句式(完全可以用自己的):
    * Thanks to /At the mercy of the ever-accelerated updating of science and technology, there are rapid changes in all aspects of our everyday lives.
    * With the (rapid, marked, amazing, eye-catching, remarkable, fantastic) development/ progress/ growth/ advance/ improvement of economy/ society/ industry/ living standard, …
    * While the rhythm/ pace/ tempo of people’s living is speeding up, …
    * As living tempo/ pace quickens, …
    * Nowadays/in this day and age/,  ____ play/fill a vital/ leading/ educational/ indispensable/ supervisory  + role/ part in …
    * Nowadays/in this day and age/, _____ produce/exert/ positive/active/profound/far-reaching + effects/impacts/influences on ____
    *  或者从所背的表‘正面“的词组中选择
    * 批评的口吻
             例如:  it is reported uniforms has made school life dull and monotonous
         可选用以下一些句式:
    * Nowadays/in this day and age/, _____ produce/exert/ negative/adverse/baneful + effects/impacts/influences on ____
    * 或者从所背的表‘负面“的词组中选择
    * 中立的口吻
            例如:it is common that student attend to school in uniforms
        可选用以下一些句式:
    * it is quite common/ it is not uncommon that
    * it is a striking fact that
    * there is growing tendency for sb to do sth
    * it is widely noted that
    * it is well aware that
    * it is a well-established fact that
     第二句:提出疑问: However/nevertheless/nonetheless/whereas  或者  
             therefore /consequently/accordingly
    *  如果题目中给出一方观点,用whether 引出,例如:whether smoking should be banned totally
         或者
    * 如果题目中给出的事两方观点,用特殊疑问句的陈述语序完成,例如(which factor can determine a nation’s success)
       切记:要进行题目的改写(词汇或结构)
    * Has become a hot topic/has been drown to public’s attention/has become the focus of public concern/has become the limelight of our day-to-day life
     第三句:自己观点
    * I still adhere to/stick to/cling to/nurture/commit to (坚持) the opinion/belief/notion(观点)_____
    * My firmly/staunchly(坚定) held the opinion/belief/notion(观点) is______
    *  第二段 :对方观点
          o Is has been said rightly(适度地)_____
          o It has been admitted(承认) to a certain extent(在一定程度上)_______
          o There, for certain, are some risks(风险)/benefits(好处) from sth/doing sth
          o It is conceivable (可想而知)_______
          o It is quite easy to find the reason to attack…./ to exalt/glorify/praise that
          o Those who have already benefited from practicing___ sing high praise of it
    * 第三段 :自己观点1
     However/nevertheless/nonetheless(但是)/notwithstanding 尽管如此/in spite of these
    * The research, relating to (和… 相关= about, concerning) has highlighted that ______(和…..相关的调查强调….)
    * It is hazardous(危险的)/ridiculous/ludicrous(可笑的) to lose sight of/be blind to (忽略)(如果忽略。。。 是很危险/可笑的)
    * It has been proved that ______(事实已经证明了。。。)
    * There still exist some risks(风险)/hazards/dangers(危险)或benefits(好处) in doing sth(在做。。。上还是也些好处或风险的)
    * 第四段 :自己观点2
     Rather/in addition/additionally/also/still(此外)
    * It is improper/ inappropriate(不合适的)/erroneous(错误的) if we regard/consider/take/treat(认为) it flawless/faultless/blameless/perfect(无可挑剔的)或 incurable(无可就药的)/intolerable(无法忍受的)
    * It turns out to be a short-sighted(目光短浅的)/mischievous(有害的)或wise/sagacious(明智的) policy
    * It is no exaggeration (夸张) to say that___(说什么也不夸张)
    * 第五段:结尾(重复观点+精彩论据的重复)
    In conclusion/ultimately/in the final analysis (总而言之),
    * It is no hard job/task/feat to arrive at the conclusion/reach the overwhelming consensus(达成一致)________
    * All the analyses justify(使…合理) a sound (站得住脚的)conclusion that
    * The evidence upon all points to (以上的证据都指向...)
    * All the evidence justifies an unshakable view that …
    * All the evidence supports an unmistakable conclusion that …

二、 1:1 折中(中间一方观点一段,另一方的观点一段)共四段
    * 第一段
     第一句:点题—定义题目中的关键词,要想让考官看不出模板的痕迹,这一点尤为重要,可以用:
    * 赞扬的口吻
            例如:wearing uniforms has become an effective way to solve school problems
         可选用以下一些句式(完全可以用自己的):
* Thanks to /At the mercy of the ever-accelerated updating of science and technology, there are rapid changes in all aspects of our everyday lives.   
* With the (rapid, marked, amazing, eye-catching, remarkable, fantastic) development/ progress/ growth/ advance/ improvement of economy/ society/ industry/ living standard,   
* While the rhythm/ pace/ tempo of people’s living is speeding up,   
* As living tempo/ pace quickens, …
* Nowadays/in this day and age/,  ____ play/fill a vital/ leading/ educational/ indispensable/ supervisory  + role/ part in …
* Nowadays/in this day and age/, _____ produce/exert/ positive/active/profound/far-reaching + effects/impacts/influences on ____
    *  或者从所背的表‘正面“的词组中选择
    * 批评的口吻
             例如:  it is reported uniforms has made school life dull and monotonous
         可选用以下一些句式:
    * Nowadays/in this day and age/, _____ produce/exert/ negative/adverse/baneful + effects/impacts/influences on ____
    * 或者从所背的表‘负面“的词组中选择
    * 中立的口吻
            例如:it is common that student attend to school in uniforms
        可选用以下一些句式:
    * it is quite common/ it is not uncommon that
    * it is a striking fact that
    * there is growing tendency for sb to do sth
    * it is widely noted that
    * it is well aware that
    * it is a well-established fact that
     第二句:提出疑问: However/nevertheless/nonetheless/whereas  或者  
             therefore/consequently/accordingly
    *  如果题目中给出一方观点,用whether 引出,例如:whether smoking should be banned totally
         或者
    * 如果题目中给出的事两方观点,用特殊疑问句的陈述语序完成,例如(which factor can determine a nation’s success)
       切记:要进行题目的改写(词汇或结构)
    * Has become a hot topic/has been drown to public’s attention/has become the focus of public concern/has become the limelight of our day-to-day life
     第三句:正方/一方观点
    *  Some people say/believe/deem/reckon(认为)______
    * It is believed/held/considered/deemed/reckoned(认为)reasonably (合理地)/understandably(可以理解) that ____________(有人这么认为也是合理/可以理解的)
     第四句:反方/另外一方观点
    *  Others/some argue/claim/maintain/challenge(挑战)/take it for granted(把…当成想当然)______
     第五句:自己的观点
       Personally/personally speaking/as I see it/from my perspective
    * The two factors/elements/considerations(因素) are intrinsically/basically(本质上) interdependent(相互依赖的) and indispensable(缺一不可的)
    * The two sides are supported by well-grounded reasons
    * There is an element of truth in the both sides
    * 第二段 :一方观点(好)
     On the one hand,
    *  ___ play/fill(发挥) vital/crucial(重要的)/leading(首屈一指)/significant(意义重大的) role/part(作用) in ___( 。。。在… 方面发挥了重要的/首屈一指/意义重大的作用)
    * ___ have/exert/produce/impose(发挥) profound/far-reaching effects/influences/impacts on___(。。。在…方面产生了深远的影响
    * 第三段 :另一方观点(好)
     On the other hand,
    * ___ has been proved to be the most determinant(决定性的) factor (…已经证明是个决定性的因素)
    * Much adequacy can be found in ….(在….方面也可以找到合理性)
    * 第四段:结尾(重复观点+精彩论据的重复)
          o  On balance, _____ and ____ do play/fill equally important role in ____ (从平衡角度来看,__ and ___ 的确发挥了同样重要的作用)

三、一面倒:共五段
    * 第一段与第五段与1:2完全相同
    * 第二段 :自己观点1
          o The foremost reason rest on/relies on(在于) the fact that (最重要的原因就在于这个事实)
    * 第三段 :自己观点2          o Another subtle explanation is ____(另一个不明显的理由是)
    * 第四段:自己观点3
         o The last convincing reason I would like to mention is____(我想提及的最后一个有说服力的理由是____)

雅思大作文首段尾段详析
一、起始段要点
要素之一: Restatement of the Topic
大作文的题目都会给出相关情景或话题,在首段中应先对题目中的情景或话题进行展开。
方法一 : 改写。即按照题目所给的内容,用不同的表达方法重新写一遍,千万不能抄袭。
注意 :改一两个词不算改写,一定要将整个表达方式改掉。
方法二:自己展开。即根据题目所谈到的话题内容适当展开,简单谈谈目前社会中的情况怎样。
注意: 不要谈的太多,更加不能偏题,与题目话题毫不相干。
要素之二: Express Your Opinion
大作文的题目中一般会问你 do you agree or disagree 或 what do you think 等,因此必须与之相对应的在首段中表明你的观点。
方法一:中立观点(即辩证表达)。即可以说某种做法既有好又有坏;对某种观点又有人同意又有人不同意等等。
说明: 比较好的表达如:I partly agree with the opinion expressed above.
             不要说:some people agree while others don'nt agree.这可不是中立地表达自己的观点。
所谓中立,其实是辩证的关系!老外看问题比较辩证,一般不会一棍子打死。
方法二:一边倒观点。即直截了当的说赞成某个观点或不赞成某个观点等等。
方法三:不表观点。即不在首段明确的表达自己的观点,但必须有引出下文之类话来作衔接。
说明: 方法一在考试中用的最多;方法二适中;方法三用的比较少(不表观点,但必须表明要先分析一下,在最后一段表明观点)。
要素之三: No Excessive Background
大作文首段中只要涵盖以上两要素即可,不要写过多不相干的展开内容,更不要将理由(即主体段的分论点)写进去,否则主体段就没内容写了。
例如:
Schools should teach children some academic subjects which will be beneficial to their future careers. Therefore, other subjects such as music and sports are not important. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Schools are responsible primarily for teaching students academic abilities which they will use in their future careers and therefore some feel that extracurricular activities such as music and sports are extraneous and should not be included in their curricula.  The inclusion of such activities, however, is vital to the complete development of a young mind and cannot be absent from the scholastic experience.                                           (63 words)
 说明:这个例子是老外写的,虽然我提出了要求,但是还是写长了,一般第1段的词数还是控制在40词左右为宜!
二、结尾段要点
要素之一: Restatement of Your Opinion
有的文章在第一段已经表达了作者的观点,那么这种情况,只要在最后一段重申一下就可以了。但是不能照抄一遍!或者将主体段所阐述的分论点(即ideas)的内容总结一下。但是,千万不要在末段的观点与全文的观点矛盾!
有的文章在第一段未明确地表达作者的观点,那么这种情况,就必须在最后一段明确地表达一下观点。
要素之二: Offering Solutions or Recommendations(optional)
有时候雅思题目会要求考生提供对某种现象的解决方法、建议等等,这种情况,就按照题目要求在结尾段分析解决方法或建议等。
注: 首尾段之间一般有一定的呼应,绝对不能自相矛盾。
如:
第一段: Many years ago trying to help people with every kind of trouble left me with one sure conviction: in case after case the difficulty could have been overcome — or might never have arisen — if the people involved had just treated one another with common courtesy.
结尾段:In the end, it all comes down to how you regard people — not just people in general, but individuals. Life is full of minor irritations and trials and injustices. The only constant, daily effective solution is politeness — which is the golden rule in action.
说明:很明显尾段没有重复首段的内容,但内容是相联系的。

雅思大作文如何举例子
在英文写作中,逻辑关系至关重要。所以在实际教学中我们都会把逻辑关系作为一个很重要的内容来教授。这些逻辑关系主要涉及:并列或递进关系、让步或转折关系、因果关系和举例等。其中举例论证是一种很常用的论证方式,因为举例论证运用具体实例来论证观点,
 一、外显连接
 所谓外显连接是指用特定的连接词将相关信息进行连接。通常情况下,例子作为论据由for example, for instance, like, such as, take… as  等引出。
 如:it is undeniable that mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways. For example, when an emergency occurs, such as a traffic accident or a violent crime, mobile phones can help the victims to call the police or an ambulance immediately for help.               (摘自《最新雅思高分范文》)
 本例中,for example 引出例子论证“mobile phones have facilitated our lives in many different ways.” 而后面的 such as 则引出emergency 的具体形式。For instance 与它的用法完全相同,即后面要接句子例证。 Like, such as, take…as 等直接名词(或相当于名词的词)。由于这些都是基本常识,这里不再赘述。
 为了使连接词多样化,建议考生运用下面的一些短语(或句式)连接论点和论据:…is a case in point; …serve as a typical example;…can be taken as an example; one example is that… another one is that等。
 如:Working part time when you are studying in university is beneficial to your life. I myself is a case in point(or ‘my experiences serve as a typical example’). Through those experiences, I have learned to be independent and responsible.
二、内化连接
 实际上,大家看原汁原味的文英文文章会发现有些信息的连接不用外显式,而是通过某些特定的词或者特定的方式给读者以清晰的层次感, 从而使文章信息传递更通畅。
 下面我们来看一下哪些例证可以省去连接词,实现内化连接。
1. 人物经历作例子
其中的人物可以是名人,Thomas Edison gave us an example that success only comes after persistence and hard work. 也可以是作者自己的亲身经历 I remember that ten years ago cell phones were unusual and seldom seen. 人物经历作例子因为其较强的故事性而引人关注。但是切记,如果运用名人做例证,要注意信息的准确性; 如果运用自己的亲身经历做例子则要注意例子选择是否典型、有说服力。但是无论怎样,有人物经历时,一定会给人以非常明确的细节信息的感觉,所以完全可以省去连接词。
2. 数字信息作例子
引入带有数字信息的例证,除可以更具体、更详实的说明观点外,也可以内化连接词,因为数字信息所要传递的一定是一个量化的概念,而这一概念就是它所要论证的中心。看个例子:
The work was immense: filling about eighty large notebooks (and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 114,000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time.
例子中immense是观点中心词,后面的具体数字都是对这一中心词的佐证。(当然我们不要忘记这里“:”也是在帮助这段文字内化连接,相当于“for example”)
3. 专有名词信息作例子
人名、地名属于细节信息的范畴,也经常出现在例证中,以一种’fact’的形式出现。如:
Air pollution is increasingly becoming the focus of government and citizen concern around the globe. From Mexico City and New York to Singapore and Tokyo, new solutions to this old problem are being proposed and implemented , with ever increasing speed.当你看到这些地名时,一定会想到它们是某一类具有相同性质的地域的代表,那么自然也就是’点’信息,而非‘面’信息,从而可以省去连接词的使用,却依然保持主次分明。
其它诸如期刊杂志名、书名等专有名词也可以有类似的用法。
4. 一些小的介词(短语)引导例子
如果大家注意总结,会发现雅思阅读文章中有一些介词(短语)也可以引出例子。
如:from…to: Toughened glass is found everywhere, from cars and bus shelters to the windows, walls and roofs of thousands of buildings around the world.
再如:including: …..
Other substances were then introduced: including fillers, catalysts and hexa.
这里including 相当于such,like等。

雅思大作文的用词和句法技巧
西方人有一句话说:Your boss has a big vocabulary than you have,that is one good reason why your boss is your boss. 这句话翻译过来就是说:你老板的词汇量比你大,这是他之所以是你老板的一个很好原因。可见词汇量大不但对一个人的工作起着决定性作用,而且也是获得雅思写作高分最有力的武器之一。
(一)词汇运用的层次
通过对雅思写作评分标准,官方范文以及考生所写的文章中,我们发现,考生在用词方面可以分为以下几个层次:
1.     正确(Correct):表达你想表达的意思,对于同一个意思可能有好几个词,那么同义词基本上都是正确的。
2.     合适(Appropriate):在不同语境下要使用不同的词,比如在肯定的语义中要用褒义词,而在否定的语义中要使用贬义词。
3.     精确(Exact):要联系上下文,尽可能用词到位,因为有些词是不够精确的。比如: allocate part of the fiscal revenue,allocate是分配,不能用divide来替换。
4.     灵活(Smart):英语本身就有很多约定俗成的表达方法,用我们的话来说,就是有很多潜规则。因此,我们要注意培养地道英语表达,还要注意词汇的固定搭配。
(二)词汇的变换技巧
在写作评分标准里有明确的关于词汇的标准: Lexical Resource: 词汇资源。它考察词汇的运用是否多样恰当且准确。词汇的多少并不能决定文章的好坏,但用词精确性是可以加分的。一般来说,词汇的准确表达可以通过两个方面达到,一是在用词的难度上拔高,二是在近义词的多种表达上提升。值得提醒的是,不要过分堆积华丽的 ,会给考官留下华而不实的感觉。
 1. 使用同义词进行替换
使用同义词的好处在于首先可以向考官展示考生词汇量的丰富,其次也可以使文章富有变化。因此,同义词的运用是衡量考生英语水平的一个很有力的标准,考官认同你的同时,自然也会给你高分。请看下面的例子:
School teachers used to be the source of information. However,some people argue that teachers are not as important as before because there is an increasing variety of information resources. What is your opinion? (08年4月24日考题)
要对上面的句子进行重新描述,最简单的就是用同义词替换,请看下表:
原文                  同义词替换   
argue                 reason   
important             crucial,significant   
increasing            growing   
variety               diversity,medley   
because               as 
 
2. 使用各种形式的同根词进行替换
英语里面有很多同根词,通过单词的变换来吸引阅卷者眼球并获得高分是一个很好的办法。一些单词通过添加前缀或者后缀的方式可以衍生出很多新的词汇。而使用这些词汇可以避免重复原文当中的词条,也可以向阅卷者展示你变化词汇的技巧。
比如写作中我们经常会用到“知道”这个概念,我们可以用know这个词以及它的其他形式和它们的同义词来表示“知道”这个意思。如下所示:
 know 的同义词
  appreciate   
  apprehend   
  cognize   
  comprehend   
  fathom   
  grasp   
  understand 
 
同词根词的同义词 

  information   
  lore   
  science   
  wisdom 
 
3. 使用短语进行替换
英语里同样拥有丰富的短语,使用它们,可以准确传达原文中的信息。在一些特殊情况下,短语也可以作为增加字数的方法。以下我们来看另外一个例子:
Some say that building more roads will help reduce the traffic congestion in big cities. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Do you support or oppose this st, atement?
 在这一段话里,可以替换的短语如下所示:


原文           同义词替换   
build           set up   
support         back up   
oppose          object to/be against   
advantages      merits/upsides 
 
4. 综合使用各种方法进行替换
经过了上述几种方法的讨论,我们可以进行综合的运用,切勿只拘泥于一种方法。比如我们要表达利益和好处这个意思时,我们一般可以使用benefit这个词,我们也可以使用其他不同的形式来表达利益和好处这个意思,比如:
 
  形容词变换: beneficial   
  副词变换: beneficially   
  短语变换: with benefit   
  动词变换: benefit   
  同义词变换: advantage/profit 
 
用同义词对于原句进行替换后,再把原句的结构进行适当的变换,最终呈现在阅卷者面前的句子和原来就截然不同,但是意思基本一致的。又比如: 英特网对我们的日常生活带来很大的影响。这句话我们可以写出不同的搭配。比如:
    profound     
    remarkable       
    considerable       
    favorable       
    desirable       
    undesirable       
    disastrous       
    deep       
    significant     
 
在上面这个表格里,对于这句话我们可以给出5×9×3=135种不同表达。可见同义词替换的威力有多么巨大。当然,要使自己的文章更吸引人,光变换单词是不够的,我们还要把单词和句子的结构变换相结合,从而使自己的文章更丰富多彩,在后面的文章中,我们将会来继续探讨雅思作文句法的变化法则。

如何用“小词”写雅思作文
那些人背诵单词和看语法书已经有十年多了,这样的十年在英文学习上证明是徒劳无益的,他们写出来的句子毫无法则,单词也不会用。无法表达自己。下面是一段关于高中毕业生是否在上大学之前要工作或者旅游一段时间的短文,所用的单词全部是高中1500核心单词之内。这并不是说高中英文教育还有什么价值,而是说大部分人是经历过高中学习的,已经具备了一般高中词汇的认知能力,全文257单词。
 
The established idea about high school students is that they should enter universities or colleges after they have finished high school study. But in these years the number of students who go to travel or work increases at a fast speed, attracting attention to study.
Either to travel or to do a job, part time or full time, helps students to grow in a happy and healthy way. To work usually means to earn a sum of money which a student uses to buy whatever delights him or her. Besides, the sum of money has deep sense to a student because he or she feels that he has grown up enough to help parents release pressure. My own experience in a factory in the summer holiday in 1996 severs as a good example. I earned totally ¥92.75 RMB that summer, almost half of my total year tuition.
To travel is also positive to students who have been kept in classrooms for long. When one travels, he or she learns more in a different way unavailable in classroom. My English professor once said that a person learns more in a hundred-mile travel than reading ten thousand books. In fact, a travel is a complex process, in which one learns to make stranger acquaintance, acquaintance friends, and friends brothers and sisters. In traveling, not only can the traveler learn more about the geography, biology, and culture but also the deep means of life.
Clearly, to travel and to work both are helpful to the high school leavers.


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